As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 12, 2024

Registration No. 333- 276799

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

AMENDMENT NO. 1

TO 

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

SAFE & GREEN HOLDINGS CORP.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Delaware   5030   95-4463937
(State or other jurisdiction of   (Primary Standard Industrial   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Classification Code Number)   Identification Number)

 

990 Biscayne Blvd., Suite 501
Miami, Florida 33132

(904) 496-0027

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

Paul Galvin

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Safe & Green Holdings Corp.

990 Biscayne Blvd., Suite 501

Miami, Florida 33132

(646) 240-4235

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

With copies to:

 

Leslie Marlow, Esq.
Melissa Palat Murawsky, Esq.
Blank Rome LLP

1271 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10020

Telephone: (212) 885-5000

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:  From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act of 1934.

 

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
    Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The Selling Stockholders may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

DATED FEBRUARY 12, 2024

 

 

3,510,302 Shares of Common Stock

 

This prospectus relates to the resale from time to time of up to 3,510,302 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 (“Common Stock”), of Safe & Green Holdings Corp., a Delaware corporation (“we,” “us,” “our,” “Safe & Green,” “SG Holdings,” or the “Company”), by Peak One Opportunity Fund, L.P. (“Peak One”) and Peak One Investments, LLC (“Peak One Investments” and together with Peak One, the “Selling Stockholders” or “Peak”). Peak One Investments is the General Partner of Peak One, both of which are Delaware entities.

 

We are registering the resale of (i) up to 2,835,302 shares of Common Stock (the “Debenture Shares”) issuable upon the conversion of our 8% convertible debenture in the principal amount of $650,000 (the “Debenture”), including conversion of accrued interest and based on the floor price set forth in the Debenture issued to Peak One, (ii) up to 375,000 shares of Common Stock (the “Warrant Shares”) issuable upon the exercise of a warrant (the “Warrant”) issued to Peak One Investments, and (iii) 300,000 shares of Common Stock (the “First Tranche Commitment Shares”), of which 250,000 shares were issued to Peak One Investments and 50,000 shares were issued to Peak One as commitment shares, each of which were issued in a private placement pursuant to the terms of that certain Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of January 11, 2024 (“Securities Purchase Agreement”).

 

See “Recent Developments” and “The Peak Transaction” for a description of the Securities Purchase Agreement and “Selling Stockholders” for additional information regarding Peak One and Peak One Investments. The prices at which the Selling Stockholders may resell the shares offered hereby will be determined by the prevailing market price for the shares or in negotiated transactions. 

 

We are not selling any securities under this prospectus and will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock by the Selling Stockholders. We will, however, receive proceeds from any cash exercise of the Warrant by Peak One Investments.

 

The Selling Stockholders may sell the shares of Common Stock described in this prospectus in a number of different ways and at varying prices. We provide more information about how the Selling Stockholders may sell their shares of Common Stock in the section titled “Plan of Distribution” on page 78 of this prospectus. The Selling Stockholders are “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

We will pay the expenses incurred in registering the securities covered by this prospectus, including legal and accounting fees. To the extent the Selling Stockholders decide to sell their First Tranche Commitment Shares or their shares of Common Stock underlying the Warrant or the Debenture, we will not control or determine the price at which the shares are sold.

 

You should read this prospectus, together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information” carefully before you invest in any of our securities.

 

Our Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGBX.” The last reported sale price of our Common Stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on February 7, 2024 was $0.33 per share. We urge prospective purchasers of our Common Stock to obtain current information about the market prices of our Common Stock.

 

Investing in our Common Stock involves a high degree of risk. Please consider carefully the risks described in this prospectus under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 of this prospectus and in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is              , 2024

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS ii
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 1
THE OFFERING 5
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 6
RISK FACTORS 8
THE PEAK TRANSACTION 30
USE OF PROCEEDS 32
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT 33
SELLING STOCKHOLDERS 34
MARKET INFORMATION FOR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY 36
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 37
BUSINESS 51
MANAGEMENT 60
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION 66
DIRECTOR COMPENSATION 69
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 71
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 75
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 78
EXPERTS 80
CHANGES IN INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 80
LEGAL MATTERS 80
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 80

 

The registration statement containing this prospectus, including the exhibits to the registration statement, provides additional information about us and the Common Stock offered under this prospectus. The registration statement, including the exhibits, can be read on our website and the website of the Securities and Exchange Commission. See “Where You Can Find More Information.” 

 

Information contained in, and that can be accessed through our web site, www.safeandgreenholdings.com, shall not be deemed to be part of this prospectus or incorporated herein by reference and should not be relied upon by any prospective investors for the purposes of determining whether to purchase the Common Stock offered hereunder.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms ““we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company,” “Safe & Green,” “SG Holdings” and “our business” refer to Safe & Green Holdings Corp. and “this offering” refers to the offering contemplated in this prospectus.

 

Neither we nor the Selling Stockholders have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, but only under the circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable free writing prospectus is current only as of its date, regardless of its time of delivery or any sale of shares of our Common Stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date. Neither we nor the Selling Stockholders are making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer is not permitted.

 

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About this Prospectus

 

Neither we nor the Selling Stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment, or any applicable prospectus supplement prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the Selling Stockholders take no responsibility for and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of the date on the front cover of the prospectus. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Industry and Market Data

 

Unless otherwise indicated, information in this prospectus concerning economic conditions, our industry, our markets and our competitive position is based on a variety of sources, including information from third-party industry analysts and publications and our own estimates and research. Some of the industry and market data contained in this prospectus are based on third-party industry publications. This information involves a number of assumptions, estimates and limitations.

 

The industry publications, surveys and forecasts and other public information generally indicate or suggest that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. We believe this information is reliable as of the applicable date of its publication, however, we have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information included in or assumptions relied on in these third-party publications. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment or any prospectus supplement may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment and the applicable prospectus supplement. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

 

Trademarks

 

This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and service marks and to those belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the®  or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent possible under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by any other companies.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our securities and it is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. Before you decide to invest in our securities, you should read the entire prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 and the financial statements and related notes included in this prospectus.

 

Overview

 

We operate in the following four segments: (i) manufacturing and construction services; (ii) medical; (ii) real estate development; and (iv) environmental. The manufacturing and construction segment designs and manufactures modular structures built in our factories using raw materials that are Made-in-America. In the medical segment we have previously used our modular technology to offer prefabricated health facilities for on-site immediate COVID-19 testing and plan to provide our modular technology to offer turnkey solutions to medical testing and treatment and generating revenue from medical testing. Our real estate development segment’s current business focus is primarily on the direct acquisition and indirect investment in properties nationally that will be further developed in the future into green single or multi-family projects. The environmental segment, the newest segment, plans to offer a sustainable medical and waste management solution that will utilize a patented technology to collect waste and treat waste for safe disposal.

 

 We are a provider of modular facilities (“Modules”). We currently provide Modules made out of both code-engineered cargo shipping containers and traditional construction using wood and steel framing for use as both permanent or temporary structures for residential housing use and commercial use. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Modules we supplied were primarily for retail, restaurant and military use and were manufactured by third party suppliers using our proprietary technology and design and engineering expertise, which modifies code-engineered cargo shipping containers and purpose-built modules for use for safe and sustainable commercial, industrial and residential building. In March 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic we began increasing our focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities for deployable medical response solutions. In September 2020, we acquired substantially all the assets of Echo DCL, LLC, a Texas limited liability company (“Echo”), except for Echo's real estate holdings. Echo was a container/modular manufacturer based in Durant, Oklahoma specializing in the design and construction of permanent modular and temporary modular buildings and was one of our key supply chain partners.  This acquisition allowed us to have more control over the manufacturing process and, as a result, we have increased our product offerings to add Modules made out of wood, steel and traditional construction materials. 

 

During 2021, through our subsidiary, Safe and Green Development Corporation. (“SG DevCorp” or “SG Development”) we also began to focus on acquiring property to build multi-family housing projects in underserved regions utilizing the manufacturing services of our subsidiary SG Echo LLC (“SG Echo”). In March 2022, we formed SG Environmental Solutions Corp. (“SG Environmental”) to focus on biomedical waste removal utilizing a patented technology that it licenses to shred and disinfect biomedical waste, rendering the waste disinfected, unrecognizable, and of no greater risk to the public health than residential household waste. In March 2023, we formed Safe and Green Medical Corporation (“SG Medical”), to focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities with various clinics and labs that cater to the specific needs of local communities. To date, we have not generated revenue from SG DevCorp, SG Environmental or SG Medical.

 

Recent Developments

 

Spin-Off of SG DevCorp

 

In December 2022, we announced our plan to separate our company and SG DevCorp into two separate publicly traded companies (the “Separation”). To implement the Separation, on September 27, 2023 (the “Distribution Date”), we, effected a pro rata distribution to our stockholders of approximately 30% of the outstanding shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock (the “Distribution”). In connection with the Distribution, each of our stockholders received 0.930886 shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock for every five (5) shares of our Common Stock held as of the close of business on September 8, 2023, the record date for the Distribution, as well as a cash payment in lieu of any fractional shares. Immediately after the Distribution, SG DevCorp was no longer a wholly owned subsidiary of ours and we held approximately 70% of SG DevCorp’s issued and outstanding securities. On September 28, 2023, SG DevCorp’s common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGD.”

 

In connection with the Separation and Distribution, we entered into a separation and distribution agreement and several other agreements with SG DevCorp. These agreements provide for the allocation between us and SG DevCorp of the assets, employees, liabilities and obligations (including, among others, investments, property, employee benefits and tax-related assets and liabilities) of us and our subsidiaries attributable to periods prior to, at and after the Separation and will govern the relationship between us and SG DevCorp subsequent to the completion of the Separation. In addition to the separation and distribution agreement, the other principal agreements entered into with us included a tax matters agreement and a shared services agreement. 

 

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Peak One January 2024 Private Placement

 

On January 11, 2024, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “January 2024 Purchase Agreement”) and related registration rights agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) with Peak One pursuant to which we agreed to issue, in a private placement offering (the “January 2024 Offering”), upon the satisfaction of certain conditions specified in the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, two debentures to Peak One in the aggregate principal amount of $1,300,000.

 

The closing of the first tranche was consummated on January 12, 2024 and we issued the Debenture in the principal amount of $650,000 to Peak One and the Warrant to purchase up to 375,000 shares of our Common Stock to Peak One Investments. The Debenture was sold to Peak One for a purchase price of $585,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%). In connection with the January 2024 Offering, we paid $17,500 as a non-accountable fee to Peak One to cover its accounting fees, legal fees and other transactional costs incurred in connection with the transactions contemplated by the January 2024 Purchase Agreement and issued to Peak One and Peak One Investments an aggregate of 300,000 shares of our restricted Common Stock as commitment shares. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement we agreed to file a registration statement within 45 days to register the First Tranche Commitment Shares and the shares of Common Stock issuable under the Debenture and the Warrant with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and to use our reasonable efforts to have the registration statement declared effective by the SEC within ninety (90) calendar days from January 11, 2024.

 

Under the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, a closing of the second tranche may occur subject to the mutual written agreement of Peak One and us and satisfaction of the closing conditions set forth in the January 2024 Purchase Agreement at any time after March 11, 2024, upon which we would issue and sell to Peak One, on the same terms and conditions, a second 8% convertible debenture in the principal amount of $650,000 (the “Second Debenture,” and together with the Debenture, the “Debentures”), and a second warrant (the “Second Warrant,” and together with the Warrant, the “Warrants”) to purchase up to 375,000 shares of our Common Stock, for a purchase price of $585,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%).  The January 2024 Purchase Agreement further provides that at the closing of the second tranche we will pay $17,500 as an additional non-accountable fee to Peak One to cover its accounting fees, legal fees and other transactional costs incurred in connection with the transactions contemplated by the January 2024 Purchase Agreement and will issue an additional 300,000 shares of our restricted Common Stock as a commitment fee to Peak One and Peak One Investments (the “Second Tranche Commitment Shares, together with the First Tranche Commitment Shares, the “Commitment Shares”). See “The Peak Transaction” for additional information with respect to the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, the Debenture and the Warrant.

 

Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on December 29, 1993 under the name PC411, INC. On January 12, 1999, we changed our name to CDSI Holdings, Inc. On November 4, 2011, CDSI Merger Sub, Inc., our wholly owned subsidiary, completed a reverse merger with and into SG Building Blocks, Inc. (“SG Building”), with SG Building surviving the reverse merger as our wholly owned subsidiary. Also on November 4, 2011, we changed our name to SG Blocks, Inc. On December 16, 2022, we changed our name to Safe & Green Holdings Corp. In addition, on December 16, 2022, our then wholly-owned subsidiary, SGB Development Corp. changed our name to Safe and Green Development Corporation by filing a Certificate of Amendment to its Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. Prior to our emergence from bankruptcy in June 2016, our Common Stock was quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board. Our Common Stock is currently listed for trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGBX.”

 

Our principal offices are located at 990 Biscayne Blvd., #501, Office 12, Miami, Florida 33132. Our website address is www.safeandgreeenholdings.com. The information contained in, and that can be accessed through our website, is not incorporated into and is not a part of this prospectus. Our phone number is (646) 240-4235.

 

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Summary Risk Factors

 

An investment in our Company is subject to a number of risks, including risks relating to this offering. Set forth below is a high-level summary of some, but not all, of these risks. Please read the information in the section entitled “Risk Factors” of this prospectus, for a more thorough description of these and other risks.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

We cannot predict the actual number of shares of Common Stock we will issue upon conversion of the Debenture.
Investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
The issuance of our Common Stock to Peak One may cause substantial dilution to our existing stockholders.

 

Risks Relating to our Financial Position and Capital Requirements 

 

From time to time we have, and may in the future, experience a shortfall in cash.
Our independent registered public accounting firm has expressed doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
We have incurred net losses in prior periods and there can be no assurance that we will generate income in the future.
To date we have not generated revenue from SG DevCorp, SG Environmental, or SG Medical.
An impairment of goodwill could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We will need to raise additional capital to fund our existing operations.
We must timely register the shares issuable under the Debenture and the Warrant.

 

Risks Relating to our Business

 

Our ability to meet our workforce needs is crucial to our results of operations and future sales and profitability.
Given our fixed cost base our profitability is highly sensitive to changes in sales volume and production levels
A material disruption of our suppliers or SG Echo’s facilities could prevent us from meeting customer demand.
A natural disaster, the effects of climate change, or other disruptions at our SG Echo facility could adversely affect us.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.
We are dependent on the services of key personnel, a few customers and vendors.
We currently are, and may in the future be, subject to legal proceedings or investigations. 
The loss of one or a few customers or vendors could have a material adverse effect on us.
We currently are, and may in the future be, subject to legal proceedings or investigations.
We may have difficulty protecting our proprietary manufacturing processes.
Our clients may adjust, cancel or suspend the contracts in our backlog.
Our liability for estimated warranties may be inadequate.
We can be adversely affected by failures of persons who act on our behalf to comply with applicable regulations.
A material disruption at one of our suppliers’ facilities could negatively affect our overall financial results.
We are subject to risks regarding environmental, health and safety laws and regulations
Our operating results will be subject to fluctuations and are inherently unpredictable.
We are subject to cybersecurity risks related to the technology used in our operations.
We could suffer adverse tax and other financial consequences if we are unable to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards

 

Risks Relating to our Industry and Other Adverse Economic Conditions

 

Unfavorable global economic conditions, including any adverse macroeconomic conditions or geopolitical events could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Limited availability or increases in costs of transportation could adversely affect our business and operations.
Expansion of our operations may strain resources.
The cyclical and seasonal nature of the construction industry causes our revenues and operating results to fluctuate.
Our business depends on the construction industry and general business, financial market and economic conditions.
Our business relies on private investment and a slower than expected economy may adversely affect our results.

 

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Risks Relating to Manufacturing and Construction

 

We are dependent upon third-party financing.
The construction industry is highly competitive.
There can be no assurance of market acceptance of Modules or modular construction techniques.
Government regulations and legal challenges may have a negative impact on our operations.
We could be exposed to potentially significant liability costs.

 

Risks Relating to Real Estate Development 

 

SG DevCorp’s success depends in part upon it's ability to acquire suitable land parcels.
SG DevCorp operates in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.
SG DevCorp’s property portfolio has a high concentration of properties located in certain states.
There can be no assurance that the properties in SG DevCorp’s development pipeline will be completed.
SG DevCorp’s insurance coverage on its properties may be inadequate to cover any losses it may incur.
SG DevCorp may not be able to secure sufficient modular units to complete its developments.
SG DevCorp’s operating results may be negatively affected by potential development and construction delays.
SG DevCorp relies on third-party suppliers and long supply chains.
The construction of manufacturing facilities involves significant risks.
Discovery of previously undetected environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect SG DevCorp
Legislative, regulatory, accounting or tax rules could adversely affect SG DevCorp
SG DevCorp's industry is cyclical and adverse changes in general and local economic conditions could reduce the demand for housing.
Fluctuations in real estate values may require SG DevCorp to write-down the book value of its real estate assets.
Inflation could adversely affect SG DevCorp’s business and financial results.
SG DevCorp could be impacted by its investments through joint ventures, which involve risks.
Risks associated with SG DevCorp’s land and lot inventories could adversely affect its business or financial results.
SG DevCorp may not be able to sell its real property assets when it desires.
Access to financing sources may not be available on favorable terms, or at all.
We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of the Separation and Distribution.

 

Risks Relating to our Common Stock 

 

Failure to meet the continued listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market could result in a delisting.
Our stock price has been subject to fluctuations in the past, has recently been volatile and our stock is thinly traded.
We currently do not intend to pay dividends on our Common Stock. Consequently, our stockholders’ ability to achieve a return on their investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our Common Stock.
Sales of shares of our Common Stock, could cause the price of our Common Stock to decline and result in dilution.
Certain provisions of Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition at a premium price.
We have availed ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements, which may make our Common Stock less attractive.

 

Smaller Reporting Company

 

We are currently a “smaller reporting company,” meaning that we are not an investment company, an asset-backed issuer, or a majority-owned subsidiary of a parent company that is not a smaller reporting company, and have a public float of less than $250 million or annual revenues of less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year. As a result of being considered a “smaller reporting company,” we will be entitled to certain exemptions regarding the disclosure that we are required to provide in our SEC filings. Specifically, “smaller reporting companies” are able to provide simplified executive compensation disclosures in their filings; are exempt from the provisions of Section 404(b) of Sarbanes-Oxley requiring that independent registered public accounting firms provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting; and have certain other decreased disclosure obligations in their SEC filings, including, among other things, only being required to provide two years of audited financial statements in annual reports. Decreased disclosures in our SEC filings due to our status as a “smaller reporting company” may make it harder for investors to analyze our results of operations and financial prospects.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

This prospectus relates to the resale or other disposition from time to time by the Selling Stockholders identified in this prospectus of up to 3,510,302 shares of our Common Stock. None of the shares registered hereby are being offered for sale by us.

 

Securities offered by the Selling Stockholders  

This prospectus covers the resale of a total of up to 3,510,302 shares of our Common Stock, consisting of:

 

●   300,000 shares of Common Stock, of which 250,000 shares were issued to Peak One Investments and 50,000 shares were issued to Peak One as commitment shares upon the execution of the January 2024 Purchase Agreement as commitment shares;

 

●   up to 375,000 shares of Common Stock to be issued to Peak One Investments upon exercise of the Warrant; and

 

●   up to 2,835,302 shares of Common Stock to be issued to Peak One upon conversion of the Debenture

 

Common stock outstanding prior to this offering   18,177,845 shares of Common Stock
     
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering   21,388,147 shares (assuming we issue the additional 3,210,302 shares of our Common Stock that are issuable in connection with the January 2024 Purchase Agreement)
     
Terms of the offering   The Selling Stockholders and any of their pledgees, assignees and successors-in-interest will determine when and how they sell the shares offered in this prospectus and may, from time to time, sell any or all of their shares covered hereby on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other stock exchange, market or trading facility on which the shares are traded or in privately negotiated transactions. These sales may be at fixed or negotiated prices. See “Plan of Distribution.”

 

Use of Proceeds   The Selling Stockholders will receive all of the proceeds from the sale of the shares offered for sale by it under this prospectus. We will not receive proceeds from the sale of the shares by the Selling Stockholders. We may receive up to approximately $198,750 in aggregate gross proceeds from cash exercises of the Warrant, based on the per share exercise price of the Warrant; however the Warrant is exercisable on a cashless basis at the option of Peak One Investments. Any proceeds we receive are expected to be used for working capital and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”
     

Risk Factors

  Investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk and could result in a loss of your entire investment. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 and the similarly entitled sections in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
     
Nasdaq Capital Market Symbol   Our Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGBX”.

 

Except as otherwise indicated herein, the number of shares of our Common Stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 18,177,845 shares of Common Stock outstanding as of January 30, 2024 and assumes that we issue the additional 3,210,302 shares of our Common Stock that are issuable in connection with the January 2024 Purchase Agreement and excludes: 

 

  36,436 shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted-average exercise price of $78.71 per share;

 

  2,021,207 shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants at a weighted-average exercise price of $5.28 per share;

 

  307,074 shares of Common Stock issuable upon the conversion of outstanding convertible notes, inclusive of accrued interest at 8% per annum and assuming a conversion price of $0.46 per share;
     
  $187,500 of shares of Common Stock that we have agreed to issue to Maxim Partners LLC on August 9, 2024, such share number to be based upon the trading price of the Common Stock at such time; and

 

  4,681,776 shares of Common Stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plan.

 

We may enter into privately negotiated agreements with the holders of certain existing outstanding warrants to purchase up to 1,898,630 shares of our Common Stock at an exercise price of $4.80 per share (the “Prior Warrants”) to, among other things, reduce the exercise price of such Prior Warrants and to extend the current expiration date of the Prior Warrants. There can be no assurance that we will amend the Prior Warrants or as to the final terms of any amendments to the Prior Warrants.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Certain statements in this prospectus may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about us and our industry, as well as statements regarding our or our management team’s expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. Additionally, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. We intend the forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions of the federal securities laws. Words such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “future,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” and similar expressions, as well as statements in future tense, may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.

 

Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results and may not be accurate indications of when such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information we have when those statements are made or management’s good faith belief as of that time with respect to future events, and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from those expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause such differences include, but are not limited to:

 

From time to time we have, and may in the future, experience a shortfall in cash.

 

Our auditors have expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

We have incurred net losses in prior periods and there can be no assurance that we will generate income in the future.

 

We will need to raise additional capital to fund our existing operations.

 

A material disruption of our suppliers or SG Echo’s facilities could prevent us from meeting customer demand.

 

We are dependent on the services of key personnel, a few customers and vendors.

 

The loss of one or a few customers or vendors could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

Changes in general economic conditions and geopolitical and other conditions may adversely impact our business.

 

Our clients may adjust, cancel or suspend the contracts in our backlog.

 

Our liability for estimated warranties may be inadequate.

 

We can be adversely affected by failures of persons who act on our behalf to comply with applicable regulations.

 

The cyclical and seasonal nature of the construction industry causes our revenues and operating results to fluctuate.

 

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Our business depends on the construction industry and general business, financial market and economic conditions.

 

There can be no assurance of market acceptance of Modules or modular construction techniques.

 

Unfavorable global economic conditions, including any adverse macroeconomic conditions or geopolitical events could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.

 

SG DevCorp operates in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities, and may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions of real property assets.

 

SG DevCorp’s property portfolio has a high concentration of properties located in certain states.

 

There can be no assurance that the properties in SG DevCorp’s development pipeline will be completed in accordance with the anticipated timing or cost.

 

SG DevCorp may not be able to secure sufficient modular units to complete its developments.

 

SG DevCorp may not be able to sell its real property assets when it desires.

 

Access to financing sources may not be available on favorable terms, or at all, which could adversely affect our ability to maximize our returns.

 

We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of the Separation.

 

To date we have not generated any revenue from SG DevCorp, SG Environmental or SG Medical.

 

We currently do not intend to pay dividends on our Common Stock. Consequently, our stockholders’ ability to achieve a return on their investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our Common Stock.

 

  We may issue shares of preferred stock or Common Stock in the future, which could dilute your percentage ownership of the Company.

 

Our failure to comply with continued listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market.

 

Risks relating to ownership of our Common Stock, including high volatility and dilution.

 

The above list of factors is not exhaustive or necessarily in order of importance. For additional information on identifying factors that may cause actual results to vary materially from those stated in forward-looking statements, see the discussions under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus represent our judgment as of the date of this prospectus. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on such statements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available or other events occur in the future. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained above and throughout this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Any investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, which we believe represent certain of the material risks to our business, together with the information contained elsewhere in this prospectus, before you make a decision to invest in our securities. Please note that the risks highlighted here are not the only ones that we may face. For example, additional risks presently unknown to us or that we currently consider immaterial or unlikely to occur could also impair our operations. If any of the following events occur or any additional risks presently unknown to us actually occur, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our securities could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will issue upon conversion of the Debenture.

 

The conversion price of the Debenture is subject to adjustment for certain security issuances by us deemed to be below the conversion price, subject to a floor price of $0.088 per share. Accordingly, the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Debenture may change over time. In addition, it is possible that the closing of the Second Debenture will not occur, which may also impact our future liquidity.

 

Investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. Similarly, Peak One may sell such shares at different times and at different prices. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase from Peak One in this offering as a result of sales made by us in future transactions to Peak One at prices lower than the prices they paid. The Selling Stockholders will have discretion to vary the timing, prices, and number of shares sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares of our Common Stock. The trading price of our Common Stock has been volatile and subject to wide fluctuations.

 

The issuance of Common Stock to Peak may cause substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and the sale of such shares acquired by Peak could cause the price of our Common Stock to decline.

 

We are registering for resale by Peak up to 3,510,302 shares of Common Stock, consisting of 300,000 First Tranche Commitment Shares, up to 375,000 Warrant Shares and up to 2,835,302 Debenture Shares. The number of shares of our Common Stock ultimately offered for resale by Peak under this prospectus is dependent the number of shares converted under the Debenture and the number of Warrant Shares issued. Depending on a variety of factors, including market liquidity of our Common Stock, the issuance of shares to Peak may cause the trading price of our Common Stock to decline.

 

In addition, we may enter into privately negotiated agreements with the holders of certain existing outstanding warrants to purchase up to 1,898,630 shares of our Common Stock at an exercise price of $4.80 per share to, among other things, reduce the exercise price of such Prior Warrants and to extend the current expiration date of the Prior Warrants. There can be no assurance that we will amend the Prior Warrants or as to the final terms of any amendments to the Prior Warrants.

 

Our need for future financing may result in the issuance of additional securities, which will cause investors to experience dilution.

 

Our cash requirements may vary from those now planned depending upon numerous factors. We expect to require additional capital until our operations generate sufficient revenue to cover our expenses. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. Our securities may be offered to other investors at a price lower than the price per share offered to current stockholders, or upon terms which may be deemed more favorable than those offered to current stockholders. In addition, the issuance of securities in any future financing may dilute an investor’s equity ownership and have the effect of depressing the market price for our securities. The Debenture contains an anti-dilution price protection feature, which adjusts the conversion price of the Debenture if the Company subsequently issues Common Stock at a price lower than the conversion price of the Debenture. In addition, in the event additional warrants or convertible debt are issued with a lower exercise price, the conversion price of the Debenture will be adjusted accordingly. Moreover, we may issue derivative securities, including options and/or warrants, from time to time, to procure qualified personnel or for other business reasons. The issuance of any such derivative securities, which is at the discretion of our board of directors, may further dilute the equity ownership of our stockholders.

 

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We have additional securities available for issuance, which, if issued, could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our Common Stock.

 

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, authorizes the issuance of 75,000,000 shares of our Common Stock and 5,405,010 shares of preferred stock. In certain circumstances, the Common Stock, as well as the awards available for issuance under our stock incentive plan, can be issued by our board of directors, without stockholder approval. Any future issuances of such stock, including pursuant to outstanding equity awards, would further dilute the percentage ownership of us held by holders of Common Stock. In addition, the issuance of certain securities, may be used as an “anti-takeover” device without further action on the part of our stockholders, and may adversely affect the holders of the Common Stock.

 

Future sales of our Common Stock could cause the market price for our Common Stock to decline.

 

We cannot predict the effect, if any, that market sales of shares of our Common Stock or the availability of shares of our Common Stock for sale will have on the market price of our Common Stock prevailing from time to time. Sales of substantial amounts of shares of our Common stock in the public market, or the perception that those sales will occur, could cause the market price of our Common Stock to decline or be depressed.

 

The shares of Common Stock issued in connection with this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act.

 

Because we will not declare cash dividends on our Common Stock in the foreseeable future, stockholders must rely on appreciation of the value of our Common Stock for any return on their investment.

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our Common Stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and will not declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, only appreciation of the price of our Common Stock, if any, will provide a return to investors in this offering. See “Dividend Policy.”

 

Risks Relating to our Financial Position and Capital Requirements.

 

From time to time, we have, and may in the future experience a shortfall in cash, and our ability to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms, if at all, may be limited.

 

At September 30, 2023 and 2022, we had cash and cash equivalents and a short-term investment, collectively, of $712,906 and $2,118,169, respectively. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and a short-term investment, collectively, of $582,776 and $13,024,381, respectively. However, for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 we reported a net loss of $12,683,098 and $3,064,019, respectively, and used $4,671,862 and $5,553,160 of cash for operations, respectively. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, we reported a net loss of $7,089,242 and $5,908,372, respectively, and used $5,630,614 and $662,759 of cash for operations, respectively. As a result of our continued losses, our cash resources have not been sufficient to sustain our operations, and we have continued to depend on financing transactions to generate sufficient cash to stay in operation. With limited cash available to fund our operating expenses, we have deferred or delayed payments to vendors, suppliers and service providers, opting instead to prioritize payments for personnel and essential resources.

 

Unless and until we are able to increase our revenues or raise sufficient capital, our lack of cash will continue to constrain our business and subject us to significant risks, including the following: (i) being unable to make the necessary investment in personnel, raw materials or other resources to effectively pursue our business plan, (ii) our suppliers, vendors and service providers slowing down or stopping to supply raw materials or services, and (iii) being forced to reduce or suspend our operations. Any delay in the receipt of raw materials due to payment issues could result in our inability to fulfill purchase orders and negatively impact our ability to generate revenue.

 

Although we are attempting to curtail our expenses, there is no guarantee that we will be able to reduce these expenses significantly. On December 15, 2023, Mr. Galvin voluntarily deferred his salary for the December 15, 2023 and December 31, 2023 pay periods as a cost saving measure. In addition, on December 14, 2023, Mr. Galvin loaned $75,000 to the Company. The loan will be interest free (subject, however to any interest which may be imputed under applicable income tax laws) and is due and payable by December 14, 2024. Our cash used in operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 was $(4,671,862) primarily due to our net loss. During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, we financed our operations from proceeds of short-term notes payables and warrants. Subsequent to the end of the quarter we have continued to finance our operations form the issuance of notes such as the Debentures in addition to cash advance agreements such as the Cash Advance Agreement pursuant to which SG Building and SG Echo, LLC sold to the lender $300,000 of their future receivables for a purchase price of $200,000, less underwriting fees and expenses paid, for net funds provided of $190,000.

 

9

 

 

We may seek to obtain additional debt or equity financing to meet any cash shortfalls both in the public company or our subsidiaries. The type, timing and terms of any financing we may select will depend on, among other things, our cash needs, the availability of other financing sources and prevailing conditions in the financial markets. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to secure additional funds if needed and that, if such funds are available, the terms or conditions would be acceptable to us, especially in light of the fact that our ability to sell securities registered on our registration statement on Form S-3 will be limited until such time as we are S-3 eligible and thereafter when the market value of our voting securities held by non-affiliates is $75 million or more. If we are unable to secure additional financing, further reduction in operating expenses might need to be substantial in order for us to ensure enough liquidity to sustain our operations. Any equity financing would be dilutive to our stockholders. If we incur debt, we will likely be subject to restrictive covenants that significantly limit our operating flexibility and require us to encumber our assets. If we fail to raise sufficient funds and continue to incur losses, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of strategic opportunities, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures will be significantly limited. While the Debenture is outstanding, we are prohibited from entering into any variable rate transactions and from incurring or suffering to exist debt other than certain specified permitted debt. Any of the above limitations could force us to significantly curtail or cease our operations, and you could lose all of your investment in our Common Stock. These circumstances have raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, and continued cash losses may risk our status as a going concern. Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern.

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm has expressed doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

The report of our independent registered public accounting firm contains a note stating that the accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and a short-term investment, collectively, of $582,776 and $13,024,381, respectively. However, during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, we reported a net loss of $7,089,242 and $5,908,372, respectively, and used $5,630,614 and $662,759 of cash for operations, respectively.

 

We have incurred losses since inception, have negative working capital of $(8,580,961) as of September 30, 2023 and have negative operating cash flows, which has raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. 

 

We have incurred net losses in prior periods, and there can be no assurance that we will generate income in the future.

 

Our ability to achieve profitability will depend upon our ability to generate and sustain substantially increased revenues. We may continue to incur operating losses in the future as we execute our growth strategy. The likelihood that we will generate net income in the future must be considered in light of the difficulties facing the construction and real estate development industry as a whole, economic conditions and the competitive environment in which we operate. Our operating results for future periods are subject to numerous uncertainties, and we may not achieve sufficient revenues to achieve profitability.

 

To date we have not generated revenue from SG DevCorp, SG Environmental or SG Medical and there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in the future.

 

In 2021, we formed SG DevCorp to develop real estate properties. In 2022 we formed SG Environmental to focus on biomedical waste removal. In 2023, we formed SG Medical to focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities with various clinics and labs that cater to the specific needs of local communities. To date, these subsidiaries have not generated any revenue from their respective operations and there can be no assurance that they will do so in the future. Each business is subject to all of the risks associated with a new business.

 

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An impairment of goodwill could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

At September 30, 2023, we had $1,309,330 of goodwill. We perform an impairment test of our goodwill annually during the fourth quarter of our fiscal year or when events occur or circumstances change that would more-likely-than-not indicate that goodwill might be impaired. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances, indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill may not be recoverable, include a decline in stock price and market capitalization, reduced future cash flow estimates and slower growth rates in our industry. There were no impairments during the nine months ended September 30, 2023. Our annual impairment tests resulted in no impairment of goodwill during fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021. Deterioration in estimated future cash flows in our reporting unit could result in further future goodwill impairment. Changes to our business strategy, changes in industry or market conditions, changes in operating performance or other indicators of impairment could cause us to record a significant impairment charge during the period in which the impairment is determined, negatively impacting our results of operations and financial position.

 

We will need to raise additional capital to fund our existing operations. If we or our subsidiaries are unable to raise capital when needed, we would be compelled to delay, reduce or eliminate our development or commercialization efforts.

 

We expect to require additional capital until our operations generate sufficient revenue to cover our expenses. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations.SG DevCorp. However, we have estimated our current additional funding needs based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong. Additionally, changing circumstances may cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to spend more money than currently expected because of circumstances beyond our control. Additional capital may not be available to us at such times or in the amounts we need. Even if capital is available, it might be available only on unfavorable terms. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenue, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, governmental funding, collaborations, strategic partnerships and alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties. If access to sufficient capital is not available as and when needed, our business will be materially impaired and we may be required to cease operations, curtail one or more product development or commercialization programs, significantly reduce expenses, sell assets, seek a merger, or joint venture partner, file for protection from creditors or liquidate all our assets.

 

Our failure to timely register the shares of our Common Stock issuable pursuant to the securities we issue to Peak could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

In connection with the Peak financing, we entered into a registration rights agreement with Peak One. In the event we were to default on our obligation to register the shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to the securities we issue to Peak, Peak One may, among other things, increase the interest rate applicable to the convertible notes to the lesser of eighteen percent (18%) per annum and the maximum interest rate allowable under applicable law and accelerate the immediate payment of the full indebtedness due under such convertible notes, in an amount equal to one hundred fifteen percent (115%) of the then outstanding principal amount and accrued and unpaid interest. The acceleration of the convertible notes issued to Peak One could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

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Risks Relating to our Business

 

Our residential construction business is difficult to evaluate because we changed our business model in June 2021 and have a limited operating history and limited information.

 

In 2021 we terminated our licensing business model for our residential construction business in the United States and are currently developing and constructing our own residential developments. In 2019 we had entered into one license agreement for use of our technology for construction of residences in the United States. We terminated this license agreement in June 2021. There is a risk that we will be unable to successfully generate income from this business model. Although we believe that we will experience increased revenue, there can be no assurance that we will not experience increased costs and generate less income with this new business model than we anticipate. We are subject to many risks associated with currently developing and constructing our own residential developments, such as our dependence upon third parties to provide services and supply required materials. Even if we generate increased revenue as anticipated, there can be no assurance that we will be profitable. We are subject to the risks inherent to the operation of a new business enterprise, and cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully address these risks.

 

Our ability to meet our workforce needs is crucial to our results of operations and future sales and profitability.

 

We rely on the existence of an available hourly workforce to manufacture our products. We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract and retain qualified employees to meet current or future manufacturing needs at a reasonable cost, or at all. Also, although none of our employees are currently covered by collective bargaining agreements, we cannot assure you that our employees will not elect to be represented by labor unions in the future. Additionally, competition for qualified employees could require us to pay higher wages to attract a sufficient number of employees. Significant increases in manufacturing workforce costs could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. 

 

Given our fixed cost base our profitability is highly sensitive to changes in sales volume and production levels.

 

The fixed cost levels of operating SG Echo can put pressure on profit margins when sales volume and/or production levels decline. Our profitability depends, in part, on our ability to spread fixed costs over a sufficiently large number of products sold and shipped, and if we make a decision to reduce our rate of production, gross or net margins could be negatively affected. Consequently, decreased demand or the need to reduce production can lower our ability to absorb fixed costs and materially impact our financial condition or results of operations.

 

A material disruption at our suppliers’ facilities or Echo’s facilities could prevent us from meeting customer demand, reduce our sales and negatively affect our overall financial results.

 

Any of the following events could cease or limit operations unexpectedly: fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, on-site or off-site environmental incidents or other catastrophes; global pandemic; supply chain disruptions; utility and transportation infrastructure disruptions; labor difficulties; other operational problems; or war, acts of terrorism or other unexpected events. Any downtime or damage at our suppliers’ facilities or SG Echo’s facilities could prevent us from meeting customer demand for our products or require us to make more expensive purchases from a competing supplier. If our suppliers were to incur significant downtime, our ability to satisfy customer requirements could be impaired, resulting in customers seeking products from other distributors, as well as decreased customer satisfaction and lower sales and operating income.

 

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A natural disaster, the effects of climate change, or other disruptions at our Echo facilities could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations

 

We rely on the continuous operation of our SG Echo facilities, both of which are located in Durant, Oklahoma, for the production of our Modules. Any natural disaster or other serious disruption to our facility due to fire, flood, earthquake, or any other unforeseen circumstance would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, adverse weather conditions, such as increased frequency and/or severity of storms, or floods could impair our ability to operate by damaging our facilities and equipment or restricting product delivery to customers. The occurrence of any disruption at our manufacturing facilities, even for a short period of time, may have an adverse effect on our productivity and profitability, during and after the period of the disruption. These disruptions may also cause personal injury and loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment, and environmental damage. Although we maintain property, casualty, and business interruption insurance of the types and in the amounts that we believe are customary for the industry, we are not fully insured against all potential natural disasters or other disruptions to our manufacturing facility.

 

We are dependent on our executive officers and management team, and the unexpected loss of their services may adversely affect our operations.

 

Our success depends highly upon the personal efforts and abilities of our executive officers and management team, which is comprised of a small number of people. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or members of our management team could have a material adverse effect on our business. 

 

The loss of one or a few customers could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

A few customers have in the past, and may in the future, account for a significant portion of our revenues in any one year or over a period of several consecutive years. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, 80% and 78%, respectively, of the our gross accounts receivable were due from one and three customers. For the nine months ended September 30, 2023 approximately 96% of our revenue was generated from one customer. Revenue relating to two and three customers represented approximately 65% and 80% of our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Although we have contractual relationships with many of our significant customers, our customers may unilaterally reduce or discontinue their contracts with us at any time. The loss of business from a significant customer could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We rely on certain vendors to supply us with materials and products that, if we were unable to obtain, could adversely affect our business.

 

We have relationships with key materials vendors, and we rely on suppliers for our purchases of products from them.  Any inability to obtain materials or services in the volumes required and at competitive prices from our major trading partners, the loss of any major trading partner or the discontinuation of vendor financing (if any) may seriously harm our business because we may not be able to meet the demands of our customers on a timely basis in sufficient quantities or at all.  Other factors, including reduced access to credit by our vendors resulting from economic conditions, may impair our vendors’ ability to provide products in a timely manner or at competitive prices.  We also rely on other vendors for critical services such as transportation, supply chain and professional services.  Any negative impacts to our business or liquidity could adversely impact our ability to establish or maintain these relationships.  Cost of revenue relating to two vendors represented approximately 12% of our total cost of revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2022. Cost of revenue relating to three vendors represented approximately 10% of our total cost of revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2022. There were no vendors representing 10% or more of our total cost of revenue for the three or nine months ended September 30, 2023.

 

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We currently are, and may in the future be, subject to legal proceedings or investigations, the resolution of which could negatively affect our profitability and cash flows in a particular period.

 

The nature of our operations exposes us to possible litigation claims, including disputes relating to our operations and commercial and contractual arrangements. Often the litigation matters are not totally within our control. We will contest these matters vigorously and will make insurance claims where appropriate, but because of the uncertain nature of litigation and coverage decisions, we cannot predict the outcome of these matters. The costs associated with litigation matters could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and profitability. In addition, our profitability or cash flow in a particular period could be affected by an adverse ruling in any litigation currently pending in the courts or by litigation that may be filed against us in the future. We are also subject to government regulation, which could result in administrative proceedings in the future.

 

We may have difficulty protecting our proprietary manufacturing processes, which could adversely affect our ability to compete.

 

We use a proprietary manufacturing process that allows us to be code-compliant in our Safe & Green™ product. Such manufacturing process is unique to the construction industry and is important to ensure our continued success, and we cannot assure you that our efforts to protect our proprietary rights will be sufficient or effective. If other companies replicate our methodology, we could lose our competitive advantage. Any future patent or trademark applications may not lead to issued patents and registered trademarks in all instances. We also cannot be assured that the scope of any patents issued in the future will be sufficiently broad to offer meaningful protection. Others may develop or patent similar or superior technologies, products or services, and our intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated, misappropriated or infringed by others. If we are unable to protect and maintain our intellectual property rights, or if there are any successful intellectual property challenges or infringement proceedings against us, our business and revenue could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We depend on third parties for transportation services, and limited availability or increases in costs of transportation could adversely affect our business and operations.

 

Our business depends on the transportation of a large number of products, via railroad or truck. We rely primarily on third parties for transportation of the products we manufacture or distribute and for the delivery of our raw materials. We are also subject to seasonal capacity constraints and weather-related delays for both rail and truck transportation. If any of our third-party transportation providers were to fail to deliver raw materials to us or our Modules to our customers in a timely manner, we may be unable to complete projects in a timely manner and may, among other things, incur penalties for late delivery or be unable to use the Modules as intended. In addition, if any of these third parties were to cease operations or cease doing business with us, we may be unable to replace them at reasonable cost. Any failure of a third-party transportation provider to deliver raw materials to us or finished Modules to our customers in a timely manner could harm our reputation, negatively affect our customer relationships, and have a material adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition. Additionally, an increase in transportation rates or fuel surcharges could adversely affect our sales, profitability, and cash flows.  

 

Expansion of our operations may strain resources, and our failure to manage growth effectively could adversely impact our operating results and harm our ability to attract and retain key personnel.

 

Increased orders for our Modules have placed, and may continue to place, a strain on our operational, financial, and managerial resources and personnel. In addition, execution of our growth strategy will require further substantial capital and effective planning. Significant rapid growth on top of our current operations could greatly strain our internal resources, leading to a lower quality of customer service, reporting problems, and delays, resulting in a loss of market share and other problems that could adversely affect our financial performance. Our efforts to grow could place an additional strain on our personnel, management systems, liquidity, and other resources. If we do not manage our growth effectively, our operations could be adversely affected, resulting in slower, no or negative growth, critical shortages of cash and a failure to achieve or sustain profitability.

  

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Our clients may adjust, cancel or suspend the contracts in our backlog; as such, our backlog is not necessarily indicative of our future revenues or earnings. In addition, even if fully performed, our backlog is not a good indicator of our future gross margins.

 

Backlog represents the total dollar amount of revenues we expect to record in the future as a result of performing work under contracts we have been awarded. Backlog may fluctuate significantly due to the timing of orders or awards for large projects and is not necessarily indicative of future backlog levels or the rate at which backlog will be recognized as revenue. As of December 31, 2021, our backlog totaled approximately $3.2 million and as of December 31, 2022, our backlog totaled approximately $6.8 million and as of September 30, 2023, our backlog totaled approximately $3.8 million. The increase in backlog at December 31, 2022 from December 31, 2021 is primarily attributable to one contract in the amount of $5.7 million entered into during 2022. Our backlog is described more in detail in “Note13 —Construction Backlog” of the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We cannot provide assurance that our backlog will be realized as revenues in the amounts reported or, if realized, will result in profits. In accordance with industry practice, substantially all of our contracts are subject to cancellation, termination or suspension at our customer’s discretion. In the event of a project cancellation, we generally would not have a contractual right to the total revenue reflected in our backlog. Projects can remain in backlog for extended periods of time because of the nature of the project and the timing of the particular services required by the project. In addition, the risk of contracts in backlog being cancelled or suspended generally increases during periods of widespread economic slowdowns or in response to changes in commodity prices. 

 

The contracts in our backlog are subject to changes in the scope of services to be provided and adjustments to the costs relating to the contracts. The revenue for certain contracts included in backlog is based on estimates. Additionally, our performance of our individual contracts can affect greatly our gross margins and, therefore, our future profitability. We can provide no assurance that the contracts in backlog, assuming they produce revenues in the amounts currently estimated, will generate gross margins at the rates realized in the past. 

 

Our liability for estimated warranties may be inadequate, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We are subject to construction defect and warranty claims arising in the ordinary course of business. These claims are common in the construction industry and can be costly. At this time, our third-party providers offer guarantees and warranties in accordance with industry standards that flow through to our clients. A large number of warranty claims could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

We can be adversely affected by failures of persons who act on our behalf to comply with applicable regulations and guidelines.

 

Although we expect all of our associates (i.e., employees), officers and directors to comply at all times with all applicable laws, rules and regulations, there are instances in which subcontractors or others through whom we do business may engage in practices that do not comply with applicable regulations or guidelines.  It is possible that our associates may become aware of these practices and not take steps to prevent them.  If we learn of practices relating to Modules constructed on our behalf that do not comply with applicable regulations or guidelines, we will move actively to stop the non-complying practices as soon as possible, and we will take disciplinary action with regard to our associates who were aware of the practices, including in some instances terminating their employment. However, regardless of the steps we take, we may be subject to fines or other governmental penalties, and our reputation may be negatively affected.

 

Environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and any changes to, or liabilities arising under, such laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.

 

We are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to, among other things: the release or discharge of materials into the environment; the management, use, generation, treatment, processing, handling, storage, transport or disposal of solid and hazardous wastes and materials; and the protection of public and employee health and safety and the environment. These laws and regulations may expose us to liability for the conduct of others or for our actions, even if such actions complied with all applicable laws at the time these actions were taken. These laws and regulations may also expose us to liability for claims of personal injury or property or natural resource damage related to alleged exposure to, or releases of, regulated or hazardous materials. The existence of contamination at properties we or our subsidiaries own, lease or operate could also result in increased operational costs or restrictions on our ability to use those properties as intended, including for purposes of construction materials distribution. In addition, because such properties are generally situated adjacent to or near industrial companies, such properties may be at an increased risk of having environmental contaminants from other properties spill or migrate onto or otherwise affect our properties.

 

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Despite our compliance efforts, there is an inherent risk of liability in the operation of our business, especially from an environmental standpoint, and, from time to time, we may be in noncompliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These potential liabilities or non-compliances could have an adverse effect on our operations and profitability. In some instances, we must have government approvals, certificates, permits or licenses in order to conduct our business, which may require us to make significant capital, operating and maintenance expenditures to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Our failure to obtain and maintain required approvals, certificates, permits or licenses or to comply with applicable governmental requirements could result in sanctions, including substantial fines or possible revocation of our authority to conduct some or all of our operations. The cost of complying with such laws could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.

 

Our operating results will be subject to fluctuations and are inherently unpredictable.

 

In order to achieve profitability, we will need to generate and sustain higher revenue while maintaining reasonable cost and expense levels We have incurred losses since inception. We do not know if our revenue will grow, or if it will grow sufficiently to outpace our expenses, which we expect to increase as we expand our operational capacity. We may not be able to become profitable on a quarterly or an annual basis. Our quarterly revenue and operating results will be difficult to predict and have in the past fluctuated from quarter to quarter. The amount, timing and mix of project sales, often for a single medium or large-scale project, may cause large fluctuations in our revenue and other financial results. Further, our revenue mix of high margin materials sales versus lower margin projects can fluctuate dramatically quarter to quarter, which may adversely affect our revenue and financial results in any given period. Finally, our ability to meet project completion schedules for an individual project and the corresponding revenue impact under the percentage-of-completion method of recognizing revenue, may similarly cause large fluctuations in our revenue and other financial results. This may cause us to miss guidance announced by us.

 

We base our planned operating expenses in part on our expectations of future revenue, and a significant portion of our expenses are fixed in the short-term. If revenue for a particular quarter is lower than we expect, we likely will be unable to proportionately reduce our operating expenses for that quarter, which would harm our operating results for that quarter. This may cause us to miss any guidance announced by us. 

 

Cybersecurity risks related to the technology used in our operations and other business processes, as well as security breaches of company, customer, employee and vendor information, could adversely affect our business.

 

We rely on various information technology systems to capture, process, store and report data and interact with customers, vendors and employees. Despite security and controls design, as the prevalence of cyber-attacks continues to increase, our information technology systems, and those of our third-party providers, could become subject to increased security threats, such as phishing and malware incidents. Our security measures may be unable to prevent certain security breaches, and any such network, system, data or other breaches could result in misappropriation of sensitive data, transactional errors, theft of funds, business disruptions, loss of or damage to intellectual property, loss of customers and business opportunities, unauthorized access to or disclosure of confidential or personal information (which could cause a breach of applicable data protection legislation), regulatory fines, penalties or intervention, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensatory costs and additional compliance costs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to, or disable, degrade or sabotage, information technologies systems change frequently, and may not be recognized until after they have been launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques, implement adequate preventative measures or remediate any breach in a timely or effective manner. In addition, the development and maintenance of preventative or detective measures is costly, and requires ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to circumvent security measures become more sophisticated. As well as incurring additional costs, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of the systems, or we may be unable to successfully integrate and launch new systems as planned without disruptions to our operations. Misuse of internal applications, theft of intellectual property, trade secrets, funds or other corporate assets and inappropriate disclosure of confidential information could stem from such incidents. 

 

Despite our efforts, we remain potentially vulnerable to cyber-attacks and security breaches, and any such attack or breach could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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We could suffer adverse tax and other financial consequences if we are unable to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards.

 

At December 31, 2022, we had tax net operating loss carry forwards totaling approximately $30.2 million. The net operating loss expires beginning 2030 through 2037 for those losses generated in 2017 and prior years. Approximately $18 million of such net operating losses will carry forward indefinitely and be available to offset up to 80% of future taxable income each year. At December 31, 2022, we had a valuation allowance of approximately $9.7 million, primarily related to net operating loss carry forwards that are not more likely than not to be utilized due to an inability to carry back these losses in most states and short carry forward periods that exist in certain states. If we are unable to use our net operating losses, we may be required to record charges or reduce our deferred tax assets, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

Risks Relating to our Industry and Other Adverse Economic Conditions

 

Unfavorable global economic conditions, including any adverse macroeconomic conditions or geopolitical events could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.

 

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets. The global credit and financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruptions in the past several years, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, rising inflation and monetary supply shifts, rising interest rates, labor shortages, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates, recession risks, and uncertainty about economic and geopolitical stability. Following the COVID-19 pandemic and in connection with geopolitical conflicts, global economic and business activities continue to face widespread uncertainties. A severe or prolonged economic downturn, or additional global financial or political crises, could result in a variety of risks to our business, including our ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all. The extent of the impact of these conditions on our operational and financial performance, including our ability to execute our business strategies and initiatives in the expected timeframe, as well as that of third parties upon whom we rely, will depend on future developments which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. A weak or declining economy also could strain our suppliers, possibly resulting in supply disruption. Any of the foregoing could harm our business and we cannot anticipate all of the ways in which the current economic climate and financial market conditions could adversely impact our business. Furthermore, our stock price may decline due in part to the volatility of the stock market and the general economic downturn.

 

Events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions, or concerns or rumors about any events of these kinds or other similar risks, have in the past and may in the future lead to market-wide liquidity problems. For example, on March 10, 2023, Silicon Valley Bank, was closed by the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation, which appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as receiver. Although we did not have any cash or cash equivalent balances on deposit with Silicon Valley Bank, uncertainty and liquidity concerns in the broader financial services industry remain.

 

While we do not have any direct operations in the Middle East, geopolitical tensions and ongoing conflicts in the region, particularly between Israel and Palestine, may lead to global economic instability and fluctuating energy prices that could materially affect our business. It is not possible to predict the broader consequences of the Israel-Palestinian war, including related geopolitical tensions, and the measures and actions taken by other countries in respect thereof, which could materially adversely affect global trade, currency exchange rates, regional economies and the global economy.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic, or the future outbreak of any other highly infectious or contagious diseases, could materially and adversely impact our performance, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Throughout 2021 and to date, the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted global economic activity and caused significant volatility and negative pressure in financial markets. COVID-19 (or a future pandemic) could have material and adverse effects on our performance, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows due to, among other factors:

 

a complete or partial closure of, or other operational issues at, one or more of our facilities resulting from infection by one or more employees or government actions;

 

difficulty accessing equity and debt capital on attractive terms, or at all, and a severe disruption and instability in the global financial markets

 

difficulty obtaining capital necessary to fund business operations;

 

construction moratoriums by local, state or federal government authorities;

 

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delays by applicable governmental authorities in providing the necessary authorizations to commence construction;

 

manufacturing and supply chain disruptions for materials sourced from other geographies which may be experiencing shutdowns and shipping delays.

 

The extent to which COVID-19 (or a future pandemic) impacts our operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence.

 

The cyclical and seasonal nature of the construction industry causes our revenues and operating results to fluctuate, and we expect this cyclicality and seasonality to continue in the future.

 

The construction industry is highly cyclical and seasonal and is influenced by many international, national and regional economic factors, including the availability of consumer and wholesale financing, seasonality of demand, consumer confidence, interest rates, income levels and general economic conditions, including inflation and recessions. As a result of the foregoing factors, the revenues and operating results we derive from customers will fluctuate and we currently expect them to continue to fluctuate in the future. Moreover, we have experienced, and may continue to experience, operating losses during cyclical downturns in the construction market. These and other economic factors could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and our financial condition and operating results.

 

Our business depends on the construction industry and general business, financial market and economic conditions.

 

The construction industry is significantly affected by changes in general and local economic and real estate conditions, such as employment levels, consumer confidence, demographic trends, housing demand, inflation, deflation, interest rates and credit availability. Changes in these general and local economic conditions or deterioration in the broader economy could negatively impact the level of purchases, capital expenditures and creditworthiness of our indirect customers and suppliers, and, therefore, our royalty income and financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Changes in these economic conditions may affect some of our regions or markets more than others. If adverse conditions affect our larger markets, they could have a proportionately greater impact on us than on some other companies. In addition, any uncertainty regarding global economic conditions such as raising gas prices may have an adverse effect on the results of operations and financial condition of us or our customers, distributors and suppliers, such as negative effects of currency exchange fluctuations. A shortage of labor in the construction industry could also have an impact on our financial results.

 

Our business relies on private investment and a slower than expected economy may adversely affect our results.

 

A significant portion of our sales are for projects with non-public owners, such as non-residential builders and home builders who make investments with private funds into their projects. Construction spending is affected by their customers’ ability to finance projects, which may be severely reduced due to high interest rates. Residential and nonresidential construction could decline if companies and consumers are unable to finance construction projects or if the economy slows or is stalled, which could result in delays or cancellations of capital projects. If the economy slows, or if housing starts and nonresidential projects do not increase, sales of our products directly by us to consumers and related services may decline, and our financial position, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.

 

Risks Relating to the Manufacturing and Construction

 

Our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively affected if additional third-party financing for our customers does not become available.

 

Our business and earnings depend substantially on our customers’ ability to obtain financing for the development of their construction projects. The availability and cost of such financing is further dependent on the number of financial institutions participating in the industry, the departure of financial institutions from the industry, the financial institutions’ lending practices, the strength of the domestic and international credit markets generally, governmental policies and other conditions, all of which are beyond our control. In light of the current economic climate, some of our customers’ projects may not be successful in obtaining additional funds in a timely manner, on favorable terms or at all. The availability of borrowed funds, especially for construction financing, has been greatly reduced, and lenders may require project developers to invest increased amounts of equity in a project in connection with both new loans and the extension of existing loans. Unfavorable changes in the availability and terms of financing in the industry will have a material adverse effect on certain privately financed projects.

 

Our results of operations also depend on the ability of any potential privately financed licensees to obtain loans for the purchase of new buildings. Over the past few years, lenders have tightened the credit underwriting standards, which have reduced lending volumes. If this trend continues, it would negatively impact our sales, which depend in large part on the availability and cost of financing. In addition, where our potential customers must sell their existing buildings or real estate in order to develop new buildings, increases in mortgage costs and/or lack of availability of mortgages could prevent buyers of potential customers’ existing buildings from obtaining the mortgages they need to complete their purchases, which would result in our potential customers’ inability to make purchases from us. If our potential customers cannot obtain suitable financing, our sales and results of operations would be adversely affected.

 

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The construction industry is highly competitive, and such competition may increase the adverse effects of industry conditions, including the consolidation of the industry.

 

We operate in a very competitive environment characterized by competition from numerous local, regional and national builders. We may compete for financing, raw materials and skilled management and labor resources. A decline in construction starts could adversely affect demand for our buildings and our results of operations. Increased competition could require us to further increase our selling incentives and/or reduce our prices, which could negatively affect our profits. We may be unable to successfully expand into or compete in the markets in new geographic areas. In addition, while we believe our ESR may improve our competitive position by potentially expediting reviews and approvals by state and local building departments and certifying our specific quality control and design acceptance criteria, there is no assurance that it will have the desired impact.

 

There can be no assurance that Modules or modular construction techniques that utilize our technology and expertise will achieve market acceptance and grow; thus, the future of our business and the modular construction industry as a whole is uncertain.

 

There can be no assurance that we will achieve market acceptance for our technology and expertise or that the modular construction market will grow. Our business may be disrupted by the introduction of new products and services and is subject to changing consumer preferences and industry trends, which may adversely affect our ability to plan for the future development and marketing of our products. Although Modules have particular applications in a wide variety of market segments, there is no assurance that we will be able to expand our relationship within such market segments or, even if we do, that general market acceptance for our technology and expertise or Modules will continue to increase.

 

Government regulations and legal challenges may delay the start or completion of our projects, increase our expenses or limit our building activities, which could have a negative impact on our operations.

 

Various domestic rules and regulations concerning building, zoning, sales and similar matters apply to and/or affect the construction industry. Governmental regulation affects construction activities, as well as sales activities, mortgage lending activities and other dealings with consumers.  These industries also have experienced an increase in state and local legislation in the United States and regulations that limit the availability or use of land. Municipalities may also restrict or place moratoriums on the availability of utilities, such as water and sewer taps. In some areas, municipalities may enact growth control initiatives, which restrict the number of building permits available in a given year. If governments in locations in which our customers operate take actions like the ones described, they could adversely affect our business by causing delays, increasing costs or limiting our customers’ ability to operate in those areas. 

 

The dangers inherent in our operations, such as disruptions to our facilities and project sites, and the limits on insurance coverage could expose us to potentially significant liability costs and materially interfere with the performance of our operations.

 

While we believe our insurance coverage is adequate and in line with our industry’s standards, all construction, including modular construction, involves operating hazards that can cause personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment and suspension of operations, including, but not limited to, natural or man-made disruptions to our facilities and project sites. The failure of such structures during and after installation can result in similar injuries and damages. Although we believe that our insurance coverage is adequate, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain adequate insurance in the future at rates we consider reasonable, or that our insurance coverage will be adequate to cover future claims that may arise. Claims for which we are not fully insured may adversely affect our working capital and profitability. In addition, changes in the insurance industry have generally led to higher insurance costs and decreased availability of coverage. The availability of insurance that covers risks we and our competitors typically insure against may decrease, and the insurance that we are able to obtain may have higher deductibles, higher premiums and more restrictive policy terms. 

 

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Risks Relating to Real Estate Development

  

The long-term sustainability of SG DevCorp’s operations as well as future growth depends in part upon SG DevCorp’s ability to acquire land parcels suitable for residential projects at reasonable prices.

 

The long-term sustainability of SG DevCorp’s operations, as well as future growth, depends in large part on the price at which it is able to obtain suitable land parcels for development or homebuilding operations. SG DevCorp’s ability to acquire land parcels for various residential projects may be adversely affected by changes in the general availability of land parcels, the willingness of land sellers to sell land parcels at reasonable prices, competition for available land parcels, availability of financing to acquire land parcels, zoning, regulations that limit housing density, the ability to obtain building permits, environmental requirements and other market conditions and regulatory requirements. If suitable lots or land at reasonable prices become less available, the number of units SG DevCorp may be able to build and sell could be reduced, and the cost of land could be increased substantially, which could adversely impact it. As competition for suitable land increases, the cost of undeveloped lots and the cost of developing owned land could also rise and the availability of suitable land at acceptable prices may decline, which could adversely impact it. The availability of suitable land assets could also affect the success of SG DevCorp’s land acquisition strategy, which may impact SG DevCorp’s ability to maintain or increase the number of active communities, as well as to sustain and grow its revenues and margins, and achieve or maintain profitability. Additionally, developing undeveloped land is capital intensive and time consuming and SG DevCorp may develop land based upon forecasts and assumptions that prove to be inaccurate, resulting in projects that are not economically viable.   

 

SG DevCorp operates in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities, and SG DevCorp may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions of real property assets.

 

The housing industry is highly competitive, and SG DevCorp faces competition from many sources, including from other housing communities both in the immediate vicinity and the geographic market where SG DevCorp’s properties are and will be located. Furthermore, housing communities SG DevCorp invests in compete, or will compete, with numerous housing alternatives in attracting residents, including owner occupied single and multifamily homes available to rent or purchase. Increased competition may prevent SG DevCorp from acquiring attractive land parcels or make such acquisitions more expensive, hinder SG DevCorp’s market share expansion, or lead to pricing pressures that may adversely impact its margins and revenues. Competitors may independently develop land and construct housing units that are superior or substantially similar to SG DevCorp’s products and because they are or may be significantly larger, have a longer operating history, and have greater resources or lower cost of capital than it, may be able to compete more effectively in one or more of the markets in which SG DevCorp operates or plans to operate.

 

SG DevCorp will also compete with public and private funds, commercial and investment banks, commercial financing companies and public and private REITs to make certain of the investments that it plans to make. Many of such competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than it. In addition, some of SG DevCorp’s competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, allowing them to pay higher consideration, consider a wider variety of investments and establish more effective relationships than it.

 

These competitive conditions could adversely affect SG DevCorp’s ability to make investments. Moreover, SG DevCorp’s ability to close transactions will be subject to its ability to access financing within stipulated contractual time frames, and there is no assurance that it will have access to such financing on terms that are favorable to it, if at all.

 

SG DevCorp’s property portfolio has a high concentration of properties located in certain states.

 

To date, SG DevCorp’s properties are located in Georgia, Texas and Oklahoma. Certain of SG DevCorp’s properties are located in areas that may experience catastrophic weather and other natural events from time to time, including hurricanes or other severe weather, flooding fires, snow or ice storms, windstorms or earthquakes. These adverse weather and natural events could cause substantial damages or losses to SG DevCorp’s properties which could exceed its insurance coverage. In the event of a loss in excess of insured limits, SG DevCorp could lose its capital invested in the affected property, as well as anticipated future revenue from that property. SG DevCorp could also continue to be obligated to repay any mortgage indebtedness or other obligations related to the property. Any such loss could materially and adversely affect SG DevCorp’s business and its financial condition and results of operations.

 

To the extent that significant changes in the climate occur, SG DevCorp may experience extreme weather and changes in precipitation and temperature and rising sea levels, all of which may result in physical damage to or a decrease in demand for properties located in these areas or affected by these conditions. Should the impact of climate change be material in nature, including destruction of SG DevCorp’s properties, or occur for lengthy periods of time, SG DevCorp’s financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, changes in federal and state legislation and regulation on climate change could result in increased capital expenditures to improve the energy efficiency of SG DevCorp’s existing properties or to protect them from the consequence of climate change.

 

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There can be no assurance that the properties in SG DevCorp’s development pipeline will be completed in accordance with the anticipated timing or cost.

 

The development of the projects in SG DevCorp’s pipeline is subject to numerous risks, many of which are outside of SG DevCorp’s control, including:

 

  inability to obtain entitlements;
     
  inability to obtain financing on acceptable terms;
     
  default by any of the contractors it engages to construct SG DevCorp’s projects;
     
  site accidents; and
     
  failure to secure tenants or residents in the anticipated time frame, on acceptable terms, or at all.

  

SG DevCorp can provide no assurances that it will complete any of the projects in SG DevCorp’s development pipeline on the anticipated schedule or within the budget, or that, once completed, these properties will achieve the results that it expects. If the development of these projects is not completed in accordance with SG DevCorp’s anticipated timing or cost, or the properties fail to achieve the financial results it expects, it could have a material adverse effect on SG DevCorp’s business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and ability to repay SG DevCorp’s debt, including project-related debt.

 

SG DevCorp’s insurance coverage on its properties may be inadequate to cover any losses it may incur and its insurance costs may increase.

 

SG DevCorp maintains insurance on its properties. However, there are certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as floods or acts of war or terrorism that may be uninsurable or not economical to insure. Further, insurance companies often increase premiums, require higher deductibles, reduce limits, restrict coverage, and refuse to insure certain types of risks, which may result in increased costs or adversely affect SG DevCorp’s business. SG DevCorp uses its discretion when determining amounts, coverage limits and deductibles, for insurance, based on retaining an acceptable level of risk at a reasonable cost. This may result in insurance coverage that, in the event of a substantial loss, would not be sufficient to pay the full current market value or current replacement cost of SG DevCorp’s lost investment. In addition, SG DevCorp may become liable for injuries and accidents at SG DevCorp’s properties that are underinsured. A significant uninsured loss or increase in insurance costs could materially and adversely affect SG DevCorp’s business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.

 

SG DevCorp may not be able to secure sufficient modular units to complete its developments using modules built by SG Echo

 

SG DevCorp intends to construct many of its planned developments using modules built by our subsidiary, SG Echo, and to rely on SG Echo as the main source of the modular units used in its projects. We had a $4,000,771 backlog of signed construction and engineering contracts in existence at September 30, 2023. SG DevCorp’s ability to complete its modular developments may be limited by the available capacity of the SG Echo facility. If SG DevCorp is unable to secure sufficient modular units to complete its developments using modules built by SG Echo, its business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

 

SG DevCorp’s operating results may be negatively affected by potential development and construction delays and resultant increased costs and risks.

 

SG DevCorp has acquired properties upon which it will construct improvements. In connection with SG DevCorp’s development activities, it is subject to uncertainties associated with re-zoning for development, environmental concerns of governmental entities or community groups and SG DevCorp’s contractor’s or partner’s ability to build in conformity with plans, specifications, budgeted costs, and timetables. Performance also may be affected or delayed by conditions beyond its control. SG DevCorp may incur additional risks when it makes periodic progress payments or other advances to builders before they complete construction. If a builder or development partner fails to perform, SG DevCorp may resort to legal action to rescind the purchase or the construction contract or to compel performance, but there can be no assurance any legal action would be successful. These and other factors can result in increased costs of a project or loss of SG DevCorp’s investment. In addition, SG DevCorp will be subject to normal lease-up risks relating to newly constructed projects. SG DevCorp also must rely on rental income and expense projections and estimates of the fair market value of property upon completion of construction when agreeing upon a price at the time it acquires the property. If SG DevCorp’s projections are inaccurate, SG DevCorp may pay too much for a property, and its return on its investment could suffer.

 

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SG DevCorp relies on third-party suppliers and long supply chains, and if it fails to identify and develop relationships with a sufficient number of qualified suppliers, or if there is a significant interruption in its supply chains, SG DevCorp’s ability to timely and efficiently access raw materials that meet its standards for quality could be adversely affected.

 

SG DevCorp’s ability to identify and develop relationships with qualified suppliers who can satisfy its standards for quality and its need to access products and supplies in a timely and efficient manner will be a significant challenge. SG DevCorp may be required to replace a supplier if their products do not meet its quality or safety standards. In addition, SG DevCorp’s suppliers could discontinue selling products at any time for reasons that may or may not be in its control or the suppliers’ control. SG DevCorp’s operating results and inventory levels could suffer if it is unable to promptly replace a supplier who is unwilling or unable to satisfy its requirements with a supplier providing similar products. SG DevCorp’s suppliers’ ability to deliver products may also be affected by financing constraints caused by credit market conditions, which could negatively impact its revenue and costs, at least until alternate sources of supply are arranged.

  

The construction of manufacturing facilities involves significant risks.

 

SG DevCorp has limited experience constructing manufacturing facilities and doing so is a complex and lengthy undertaking that requires sophisticated, multi-disciplinary planning and precise execution. The construction of manufacturing facilities is subject to a number of risks. In particular, the construction costs may materially exceed budgeted amounts, which could adversely affect SG DevCorp’s results of operations and financial condition. For example, SG DevCorp may suffer construction delays or cost overruns as a result of a variety of factors, such as labor and material shortages, defects in materials and workmanship, adverse weather conditions, transportation constraints, construction change orders, site changes, labor issues and other unforeseen difficulties, any of which could delay or prevent the completion of SG DevCorp’s planned facilities. While SG DevCorp’s goal is to negotiate contracts with engineering, procurement and construction firms that minimize risk, any delays or cost overruns it encounters may result in the renegotiation of SG DevCorp’s construction contracts, which could increase its costs.

 

In addition, the construction of manufacturing facilities may be subject to the receipt of approvals and permits from various regulatory agencies. Such agencies may not approve the projects in a timely manner or may impose restrictions or conditions on a production facility that could potentially prevent construction from proceeding, lengthen its expected completion schedule and/or increase its anticipated cost. If construction costs are higher than it anticipates, SG DevCorp may be unable to achieve its expected investment return, which could adversely affect its business and results of operations.

 

Discovery of previously undetected environmentally hazardous conditions may adversely affect SG DevCorp’s operating results.

 

SG DevCorp is subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations that (a) regulate certain activities and operations that may have environmental or health and safety effects, such as the management, generation, release or disposal of regulated materials, substances or wastes, (b) impose liability for the costs of cleaning up, and damages to natural resources from, past spills, waste disposals on and off-site, or other releases of hazardous materials or regulated substances, and (c) regulate workplace safety. Compliance with these laws and regulations could increase SG DevCorp’s operational costs. Violation of these laws may subject SG DevCorp to significant fines, penalties or disposal costs, which could negatively impact its results of operations, financial position and cash flows. Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of currently or formerly owned, leased or operated real property may be liable for the cost of removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances on, under or in such property. The costs of removal or remediation could be substantial. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Accordingly, SG DevCorp may incur significant costs to defend against claims of liability, to comply with environmental regulatory requirements, to remediate any contaminated property, or to pay personal injury claims.

 

Moreover, environmental laws also may impose liens on property or other restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures or prevent SG DevCorp or its lessees from operating such properties. Compliance with new or more stringent laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require SG DevCorp to incur material expenditures. Future laws, ordinances or regulations or the discovery of currently unknown conditions or non-compliances may impose material liability under environmental laws.

 

Legislative, regulatory, accounting or tax rules, and any changes to them or actions brought to enforce them, could adversely affect SG DevCorp.

 

SG DevCorp is subject to a wide range of legislative, regulatory, accounting and tax rules. The costs and efforts of compliance with these laws, or of defending against actions brought to enforce them, could adversely affect SG DevCorp In addition, if there are changes to the laws, regulations or administrative decisions and actions that affect SG DevCorp, SG DevCorp may have to incur significant expenses in order to comply, or SG DevCorp may have to restrict or change its operations.

 

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SG DevCorp has invested, and expects to continue to invest, in real property assets which are subject to laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and human health and safety. These laws and regulations generally govern wastewater discharges, noise levels, air emissions, the operation and removal of underground and above-ground storage tanks, the use, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of solid and hazardous materials and the remediation of contamination associated with disposals. Environmental laws and regulations may impose joint and several liabilities on tenants, owners or operators for the costs to investigate and remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. This liability could be substantial. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly remediate these substances, could adversely affect SG DevCorp’s ability to sell, rent or pledge an affected property as collateral for future borrowings. SG DevCorp intends to take commercially reasonable steps when it can to protect itself from the risks of environmental law liability; however, SG DevCorp may not obtain independent third-party environmental assessments for every property it acquires. In addition, any such assessments that it does obtain may not reveal all environmental liabilities, or whether a prior owner of a property created a material environmental condition not known to it. In addition, there are various local, state and federal fire, health, safety and similar regulations with which SG DevCorp may be required to comply, and that may subject it to liability in the form of fines or damages. In all events, the existing condition of land when SG DevCorp buys it, operations in the vicinity of its properties or activities of unrelated third parties could all affect its properties in ways that lead to costs being imposed on it.

 

Any material expenditures, fines, damages or forced changes to SG DevCorp’s business or strategy resulting from any of the above could adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.

 

SG DevCorp’s business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition are greatly affected by the performance of the real estate industry. 

 

The U.S. real estate industry is highly cyclical and is affected by global, national and local economic conditions, general employment and income levels, availability of financing, interest rates, and consumer confidence and spending. Other factors impacting real estate businesses include over-building, changes in traffic patterns, changes in demographic conditions, changes in tenant and buyer preferences and changes in government requirements, including tax law changes. These factors are outside of SG DevCorp’s control and may have a material adverse effect on its business, profits and the timing and amounts of its cash flows.

 

SG DevCorp’s industry is cyclical and adverse changes in general and local economic conditions could reduce the demand for housing and, as a result, could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

SG DevCorp’s business can be substantially affected by adverse changes in general economic or business conditions that are outside of its control, including changes in short-term and long-term interest rates; employment levels and job and personal income growth; housing demand from population growth, household formation and other demographic changes, among other factors; availability and pricing of mortgage financing for homebuyers; consumer confidence generally and the confidence of potential homebuyers in particular; consumer spending; financial system and credit market stability; private party and government mortgage loan programs (including changes in FHA, USDA, VA, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac conforming mortgage loan limits, credit risk/mortgage loan insurance premiums and/or other fees, down payment requirements and underwriting standards), and federal and state regulation, oversight and legal action regarding lending, appraisal, foreclosure and short sale practices; federal and state personal income tax rates and provisions, including provisions for the deduction of mortgage loan interest payments, real estate taxes and other expenses; supply of and prices for available new or resale multifamily units; interest of financial institutions or other businesses in purchases; and real estate taxes. Adverse changes in these conditions may affect SG DevCorp’s business nationally or may be more prevalent or concentrated in particular submarkets in which it operates. Inclement weather, natural disasters (such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, prolonged periods of precipitation, droughts, and fires), other calamities and other environmental conditions can delay the delivery of its units and/or increase its costs. Civil unrest or acts of terrorism can also have a negative effect on its business. If the housing industry experiences a significant or sustained downturn, it would materially adversely affect SG DevCorp’s business and results of operations in future years. The potential difficulties described above can cause demand and prices for SG DevCorp’s units to fall or cause it to take longer and incur more costs to develop the land and build its units. SG DevCorp may not be able to recover these increased costs by raising prices because of market conditions.

 

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Fluctuations in real estate values may require SG DevCorp to write-down the book value of its real estate assets.

 

The housing and land development industries are subject to significant variability and fluctuations in real estate values. As a result, SG DevCorp may be required to write-down the book value of SG DevCorp’s real estate assets in accordance with GAAP, and some of those write-downs could be material. Any material write-downs of assets could have a material adverse effect on SG DevCorp’s business, prospects, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, valuations of real estate properties do not necessarily represent the price at which a willing buyer would purchase such property; therefore, there can be no assurance that SG DevCorp would realize the values underlying estimated valuations of SG DevCorp’s properties if it were to sell such properties.

  

Inflation could adversely affect SG DevCorp’s business and financial results.

 

Inflation could adversely affect SG DevCorp’s business and financial results by increasing the costs of land, raw materials and labor needed to operate SG DevCorp’s business. If SG DevCorp’s markets have an oversupply of housing, relative to demand, SG DevCorp may be unable to offset any such increases in costs with corresponding higher sales prices for its units or buildings. Inflation may also accompany higher interest rates, which could adversely impact potential customers’ ability to obtain financing on favorable terms, thereby further decreasing demand. If SG DevCorp is unable to raise the prices of its units or buildings to offset the increasing costs of its operations, its margins could decrease. Furthermore, if SG DevCorp needs to lower the price of its units to meet demand, the value of its land inventory may decrease. Inflation may also raise SG DevCorp’s costs of capital and decrease its purchasing power, making it more difficult to maintain sufficient funds to operate its business.

 

SG DevCorp could be impacted by its investments through joint ventures, which involve risks not present in investments in which SG DevCorp is the sole owner.

 

SG DevCorp has and may continue to fund development projects through the use of joint ventures. Joint ventures involve risks including, but not limited to, the possibility that the other joint venture partners may possess the ability to take or force action contrary to its interests or withhold consent contrary to its requests, have business goals which are or become inconsistent with SG DevCorp’s or default on their financial obligations to the joint venture, which may require it to fulfill the joint venture’s financial obligations as a legal or practical matter. SG DevCorp and its joint venture partners may each have the right to initiate a buy-sell arrangement, which could cause it to sell its interest, or acquire a joint venture partner’s interest, at a time when it otherwise would not have entered into such a transaction. In addition, a sale or transfer by it to a third party of its interests in the joint venture may be subject to consent rights or rights of first refusal in favor of its partners which would restrict SG DevCorp’s ability to dispose of its interest in the joint venture. Each joint venture agreement is individually negotiated, and its ability to operate, finance, or dispose of a joint venture project in its sole discretion is limited to varying degrees depending on the terms of the applicable joint venture agreement.

 

Risks associated with SG DevCorp’s land and lot inventories could adversely affect its business or financial results.

 

Risks inherent in controlling, purchasing, holding, and developing land are substantial. The risks inherent in purchasing and developing land parcels increase as consumer demand for housing decreases and the holding period increases. As a result, SG DevCorp may buy and develop land parcels on which housing units cannot be profitably built and sold. In certain circumstances, a grant of entitlements or development agreement with respect to a particular parcel of land may include restrictions on the transfer of such entitlements to a buyer of such land, which could negatively impact the price of such entitled land by restricting its ability to sell it for its full entitled value. In addition, inventory carrying costs can be significant and can result in reduced margins or losses in a poorly performing community or market. The time and investment required for development may adversely impact its business. In the event of significant changes in economic or market conditions, SG DevCorp may have to sell units or buildings at significantly lower margins or at a loss, if SG DevCorp is able to sell them at all. Additionally, deteriorating market conditions could cause SG DevCorp to record significant inventory impairment charges. The recording of a significant inventory impairment could negatively affect its reported earnings per share and negatively impact the market perception of its business.

 

SG DevCorp may not be able to sell its real property assets when it desires.

 

Investments in real property are relatively illiquid compared to other investments. Accordingly, SG DevCorp may not be able to sell real property assets when it desires or at prices acceptable to it. This could substantially reduce the funds available for satisfying its obligations, including any debt obligations. 

 

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Access to financing sources may not be available on favorable terms, or at all, which could adversely affect SG DevCorp’s ability to maximize its returns.

 

SG DevCorp’s access to third-party sources of financing will depend, in part, on: 

 

  general market conditions;
     
  the market’s perception of its growth potential;
     
  with respect to acquisition and/or development financing, the market’s perception of the value of the land parcels to be acquired and/or developed;
     
  its current debt levels;
     
  its current and expected future earnings;
     
  its cash flow; and
     
  if applicable, the market price per share of its Common Stock.

 

The global credit and equity markets and the overall economy can be extremely volatile, which could have a number of adverse effects on SG DevCorp’s operations and capital requirements. For the past decade, the domestic financial markets have experienced a high degree of volatility, uncertainty and, during certain periods, tightening of liquidity in both the high yield debt and equity capital markets, resulting in certain periods where new capital has been both more difficult and more expensive to access. If SG DevCorp is unable to access the credit markets, it could be required to defer or eliminate important business strategies and growth opportunities in the future. In addition, if there is volatility and weakness in the capital and credit markets, potential lenders may be unwilling or unable to provide SG DevCorp with financing that is attractive to it or may increase collateral requirements or may charge us prohibitively high fees in order to obtain financing. Consequently, SG DevCorp’s ability to access the credit market in order to attract financing on reasonable terms may be adversely affected. Investment returns on SG DevCorp’s assets and its ability to make acquisitions could be adversely affected by its inability to secure additional financing on reasonable terms, if at all. Depending on market conditions at the relevant time, SG DevCorp may have to rely more heavily on additional equity financings or on less efficient forms of debt financing that require a larger portion of its cash flow from operations, thereby reducing funds available for SG DevCorp’s operations, future business opportunities and other purposes. SG DevCorp may not have access to such equity or debt capital on favorable terms at the desired times, or at all.

 

If SG DevCorp were to default in its obligation to repay the loan received from BCV S&G DevCorp it could adversely affect our investment in SG DevCorp.

 

To date, SG DevCorp has received $1,750,000 as a secured loan from BCV S&G DevCorp, a Luxembourg-based specialized investment fund, and has entered into a loan agreement with BCV S&G DevCorp to receive up to $2,000,000 as a secured loan. The loan matures on December 1, 2024 and is secured by 1,999,999 of our shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock. The loan agreement, as amended, provides that if SG DevCorp’s shares of common stock were not listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market before September 30, 2023 or if following such listing the total market value of the pledged shares falls below twice the face value of the loan, the loan would be further secured by SG DevCorp’s St. Mary’s industrial site. Following the listing, the total market value of the pledged shares has fallen below twice the face value of the loan and SG DevCorp and BCV S&G DevCorp are in discussions regarding alternatives, if any. If SG DevCorp were to default in its obligation to repay the loan when due it could adversely affect our investment in SG DevCorp.

 

Risks Relating to Being a Public Company

 

We incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company and our management devotes substantial time to new compliance initiatives.

 

As a public company, we have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. We are subject to the reporting and corporate governance requirements of the Exchange Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Act. Compliance with the various reporting and other requirements applicable to public companies requires considerable time and attention of management. For example, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules of the SEC and national securities exchanges impose various requirements on public companies, including requiring establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls. Our management and other personnel are devoting and will continue to need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives.

 

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In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expense and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.

 

Risks Relating to our Common Stock

 

Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market could result in a delisting of our Common Stock.

 

Our Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq” or the “Nasdaq Capital Market”), which imposes, among other requirements, a minimum bid requirement.

 

On November 7, 2023, we received a deficiency letter from the Listing Qualifications Department of the Nasdaq notifying us that for the preceding 30 consecutive business days (September 26, 2023 through November 6, 2023), our Common Stock did not maintain a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 (“Minimum Bid Price Requirement”) per share as required by Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2).  In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we have a compliance period of 180 calendar days, or until May 6, 2024, to regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2). Compliance may be achieved automatically and without further action if the closing bid price of our Common Stock is at or above $1.00 for a minimum of ten consecutive business days at any time during the 180-day compliance period, in which case, in its discretion, Nasdaq will notify the Company of its compliance and the matter will be closed. If, however, we do not achieve compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement by May 6, 2024, we may be eligible for additional time to comply. In order to be eligible for such additional time, we will be required to meet the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other initial listing standards for the Nasdaq Capital Market, with the exception of the Minimum Bid Price Requirement, and must notify Nasdaq in writing of our intention to cure the deficiency during the second compliance period. We intend to actively monitor the bid price of our Common Stock and will consider available options to regain compliance with the Nasdaq listing requirements, including such actions as effecting a reverse stock split to maintain our Nasdaq listing. 

 

If we cannot regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement or if we otherwise fail to meet any of Nasdaq’s listing standards, our Common Stock will be subject to delisting. If that were to occur, our Common Stock would be subject to rules that impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell our securities. The additional burdens imposed upon broker-dealers by these requirements could discourage broker-dealers from effecting transactions in our Common Stock. This would adversely affect the ability of investors to trade our Common Stock and would adversely affect the value of our Common Stock. Delisting from Nasdaq would cause us to pursue eligibility for trading of our Common Stock on other markets or exchanges, or on an over-the-counter market. In such case, our stockholders’ ability to trade or obtain quotations of the market value of our Common Stock would be severely limited because of lower trading volumes and transaction delays. These factors could contribute to lower prices and larger spreads in the bid and ask prices of these securities. There can be no assurance that our Common Stock, if delisted from the Nasdaq, would be listed on a national securities exchange, a national quotation service or the over-the-counter markets. Delisting from the Nasdaq could also result in negative publicity, adversely affect the market liquidity of our Common Stock, decrease securities analysts’ coverage of us or diminish investor, supplier and employee confidence. In addition, our stock could become a “penny stock,” which would make trading of our Common Stock more difficult.

 

The delisting of our Common Stock from Nasdaq may make it more difficult for us to raise capital on favorable terms in the future, or at all. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our Common Stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our Common Stock when you wish to do so. Further, if our Common Stock were to be delisted from Nasdaq, our Common Stock would cease to be recognized as a covered security, and we would be subject to additional regulation in each state in which we offer our securities. Moreover, there is no assurance that any actions that we take to restore our compliance with the Nasdaq Minimum Bid Price Requirement would stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our Common Stock, prevent our Common Stock from falling below the Nasdaq minimum bid price required for continued listing again or prevent future non-compliance with other applicable Nasdaq listing requirements, including maintaining minimum levels of stockholders’ equity or market values of our Common Stock, our Common Stock could be delisted

 

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We may effect a reverse stock split of our outstanding common stock after the date hereof.

 

In order to comply with the Nasdaq Minimum Bid Requirement, the Board may determine to effect a reverse stock split of our Common Stock. At the Company’s annual meeting on December 6, 2023, the stockholders approved an amendment to the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, at a ratio of 1-for-10 to 1-for-20 (the “Range”), with the ratio within such Range to be determined at the discretion of the Board and included in a public announcement. We expect that any future reverse stock split will increase the market price of our Common Stock while our stock is trading and enable us to meet the Minimum Bid Requirement. However, the effect of a reverse stock split upon the market price of our Common Stock cannot be predicted with certainty, and the results of reverse stock splits by companies in similar circumstances have been varied. It is possible that the market price of our Common Stock following the reverse stock split will not increase sufficiently for us to be in compliance with the Minimum Bid Requirement, or if it does, that such price will be sustained. If we are unable to meet the Minimum Bid Requirement, our Common Stock could be delisted.

 

Our stock price has been subject to fluctuations in the past, has recently been volatile, and will likely continue to be subject to fluctuations and decline, due to factors beyond our control, and investors in our Common Stock may lose all or part of their investment in our company.

 

The trading price of our Common Stock has been and is expected to continue to be volatile and has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, including limited trading volume. We may incur rapid and substantial decreases in our stock price in the foreseeable future that are unrelated to our operating performance for prospects. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus, these factors include:

 

  economic and market conditions or trends in our industry or the economy as a whole and, in particular, in the construction industry;

 

  additions or departures of key personnel;

 

  operating results that fall below expectations;

 

  industry developments;

 

  new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;

 

  material litigation or government disputes;

 

  the public’s response to press releases or other public announcements by us or third parties, including our filings with the SEC;

 

  changes in financial estimates or recommendations by any securities analysts who follow our Common Stock;

 

  the size of our market float and potential dilution due to the exercise of outstanding options and warrants;

 

  future sales of our Common Stock by our officers, directors and significant stockholders, including sales pursuant to a registration statement filed to permit a significant stockholder to sell shares of our Common Stock, pursuant to certain registration rights granted to such stockholder;

 

  other events or factors, including those resulting from such events, or the prospect of such events, including war, terrorism and other international conflicts, public health issues including health epidemics or pandemics, such as the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 novel coronavirus, and natural disasters such as fire, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados or other adverse weather and climate conditions, whether occurring in the United States or elsewhere, could disrupt our operations, disrupt the operations of our suppliers or result in political or economic instability; and

 

  period-to-period fluctuations in our financial results.

 

In addition, the securities markets have, from time to time, experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also materially and adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock. Since the stock price of our Common Stock has fluctuated in the past, has recently been volatile and will likely be volatile in the future, investors in our Common Stock may lose all or part of their investment in our company. In the past, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, we could incur substantial costs and our resources and the attention of management could be diverted from our business.   

 

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock in the public market, or the perception that they might occur, could cause the price of our Common Stock to decline.

 

The price of our Common Stock could decline if there are substantial sales of our Common Stock, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers and significant stockholders. If our existing stockholders sell substantial amounts of our Common Stock in the public market, or if the public perceives that such sales could occur, this could have an adverse impact on the market price of our Common Stock, even if there is no relationship between such sales and the performance of our business.

 

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In addition, shares subject to outstanding options under our stock incentive plan are and will become eligible for sale in the public market in the future, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. Substantial sales of such shares, at that time, could depress the sale price of our Common Stock. In addition, the sale of shares underlying our outstanding convertible notes and warrants could depress the sale price of our Common Stock.

 

Significant sales of our Common Stock, or the possibility that these sales may occur, might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. In addition, we may issue shares of our Common Stock in connection with investments or acquisitions in the future. The amount of shares of our Common Stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of Common Stock.

 

The issuance of shares of our Common Stock upon the exercise of outstanding options, warrants and convertible notes may dilute the percentage ownership of the then-existing stockholders and may make it more difficult to raise additional equity capital.

 

As of January 30, 2024, there are outstanding options and warrants to purchase 36,436 and 2,396,207 shares of our Common Stock, respectively and outstanding convertible notes which are convertible into 1,726,083 shares of Common Stock, inclusive of accrued interest at 8% per annum and assuming a conversion price of $0.46 per share. The exercise of such options and warrants, and the conversion of the convertible notes would dilute the then-existing stockholders’ percentage ownership of our stock, and any sales in the public market of Common Stock underlying such securities could adversely affect prevailing market prices for the Common Stock.

 

In addition, we may enter into privately negotiated agreements with the holders of certain existing outstanding warrants to purchase up to 1,898,630 shares of our Common Stock at an exercise price of $4.80 per share to, among other things, reduce the exercise price of such Prior Warrants and to extend the current expiration date of the Prior Warrants. There can be no assurance that we will amend the Prior Warrants or as to the final terms of any amendments to the Prior Warrants.

 

The issuance of additional securities by our Board of Directors (the “Board” or “Board of Directors”) will dilute the ownership interests of our current stockholders and could discourage the acquisition of us.

 

Our Board, without any action by our stockholders, is authorized to designate and issue additional classes or series of capital stock (including classes or series of preferred stock) as it deems appropriate and to establish the rights, preferences and privileges of such classes or series. The issuance of any new class or series of capital stock would not only dilute the ownership interest of our current stockholders but may also adversely affect the voting power and other rights of holders of Common Stock. The rights of holders of preferred stock and other classes of common stock that may be issued may be superior to the rights of the holders of the existing class of common stock in terms of the payment of ordinary and liquidating dividends and voting rights.

 

In addition, the ability of the Board to designate and issue such shares could impede or deter an unsolicited tender offer or takeover proposal regarding us and the issuance of additional shares having preferential rights could adversely affect the voting power and other rights of holders of Common Stock and render more difficult the removal of current management, even if such removal may be in the stockholders’ best interests.

 

We do not expect to pay dividends in the future. Any return on investment may be limited to the value of our Common Stock.

 

For the foreseeable future, we intend to retain any earnings to finance the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Common Stock. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend upon results of operations, financial condition, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors our Board deems relevant. Accordingly, if you purchase shares of our Common Stock, realization of a gain on your investment will depend on the appreciation of the price of our Common Stock, which may never occur. Investors seeking cash dividends in the foreseeable future should not purchase our Common Stock.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or our industry, or publish negative reports about our business or our industry, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our Common Stock will be influenced by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business, our industry or our competitors. If one or more of the analysts who cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, change their opinion of the prospects for our company in a negative manner or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

Certain provisions of Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition at a premium price.

 

Certain provisions of Delaware law could discourage potential acquisition proposals, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, or limit the price that investors may be willing to pay in the future for shares of our Common Stock. Because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Such provisions may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition of the Company, including a transaction in which the acquirer may offer a premium price for our stock.

 

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If our shares become subject to the penny stock rules, it would become more difficult to trade our shares. 

 

The SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00, other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system. If we do not retain a listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market and if the price of our shares of Common Stock is less than $5.00, our Common Stock will be deemed a penny stock (meaning that our shares may be considered highly speculative and may trade infrequently, which can make them difficult to accurately price or sell). The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that, before effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive: (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our Common Stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares. 

 

As a “smaller reporting company,” we may avail ourselves of reduced disclosure requirements, which may make our Common Stock less attractive to investors.

 

We are a “smaller reporting company” under applicable SEC rules and regulations, and we will continue to be a “smaller reporting company” for so long as either (i) the market value of our Common Stock held by non-affiliates as of the end of our most recently completed second quarter (“public float”) is less than $250 million or (ii) annual revenues of less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and (A) no public float or (B) a public float of less than $700 million. As a “smaller reporting company,” we have relied on exemptions from certain SEC disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies. These exemptions include reduced financial disclosure and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation. Until such time as we cease to be a “smaller reporting company,” such reduced disclosure in our SEC filings may make it harder for investors to analyze our operating results and financial prospects. If some investors find our Common Stock less attractive as a result of our reduced disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our Common Stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

 

Our shares of Common Stock are from time to time thinly traded, so stockholders may be unable to sell at or near ask prices or at all if they need to sell shares to raise money or otherwise desire to liquidate their shares.

 

Our Common Stock has from time to time been “thinly-traded,” meaning that the number of persons interested in purchasing our Common Stock at or near ask prices at any given time may be relatively small or non-existent. This situation is attributable to a number of factors, including the fact that we are a small company that is relatively unknown to stock analysts, stock brokers, institutional investors and others in the investment community that generate or influence sales volume, and that even if we came to the attention of such persons, they tend to be risk-averse and would be reluctant to follow an unproven company such as ours or purchase or recommend the purchase of our shares until such time as we became more seasoned and viable. As a consequence, there may be periods of several days or more when trading activity in our shares is minimal or non-existent, as compared to a seasoned issuer that has a large and steady volume of trading activity that will generally support continuous sales without an adverse effect on share price. We cannot give stockholders any assurance that a broader or more active public trading market for our Common Stock will develop or be sustained, or that current trading levels will be sustained.

 

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THE PEAK TRANSACTION

 

Private Placement

 

On January 11, 2024, we entered into the January 2024 Purchase Agreement with Peak One, pursuant to which we agreed to issue, in a private placement offering upon the satisfaction of certain conditions specified in the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, two debentures to Peak One in the aggregate principal amount of $1,300,000, two warrants to purchase up to 750,000 shares of Common Stock and 600,000 Commitment Shares.

 

On January 12, 2024, we issued the first Debenture in the principal amount of $650,000 in addition to the Warrant to purchase up to 375,000 shares of Common Stock and the 300,000 First Tranche Commitment Shares. The Debenture was sold to Peak One for a purchase price of $585,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%). In connection with the January 2024 Offering, we paid $17,500 as a non-accountable fee to Peak One to cover its accounting fees, legal fees and other transactional costs incurred in connection with the transactions contemplated by the January 2024 Purchase Agreement and issued to Peak One and Peak One Investments an aggregate total of 300,000 SPA Commitment Shares as described in the January 2024 Purchase Agreement.

 

The Debenture matures twelve months from its date of issuance and bears interest at a rate of 8% per annum payable on the maturity date. The Debenture is convertible, at the option of the holder, at any time, into such number of shares of our Common Stock equal to the principal amount of the Debenture plus all accrued and unpaid interest at a conversion price equal to $0.46 (the “Conversion Price”), subject to adjustment for any stock splits, stock dividends, recapitalizations and similar events and in the event we, at any time while the Debenture is outstanding, issue, sell or grant any option to purchase, or sell or grant any right to reprice, or otherwise dispose of, or issue Common Stock or other securities convertible into, exercisable for, or otherwise entitle any person the right to acquire, shares of Common Stock, other than with respect to an Exempt Issuance (as defined in the Debenture), at an effective price per share that is lower than the then Conversion Price. In the event of any such anti-dilutive event, the Conversion Price will be reduced at the option of the holder to such lower effective price of the dilutive event, subject to a floor price of $0.088 per share.

 

The Debenture is redeemable by us at a redemption price equal to 110% of the sum of the principal amount to be redeemed plus accrued interest, if any. While the Debenture is outstanding, if we receive cash proceeds of more than $1,500,000.00 (“Minimum Threshold”) in the aggregate from any source or series of related or unrelated sources, we shall, within two (2) business days of our receipt of such proceeds, inform the holder of such receipt, following which the holder shall have the right in its sole discretion to require us to immediately apply up to 50% of all proceeds received by us (from any source except with respect to proceeds from the issuance of equity or debt to our officers and directors) after the Minimum Threshold is reached to repay the outstanding amounts owed under the Debenture.

 

The Debenture contains customary events of default. If an event of default occurs, until it is cured, Peak One may increase the interest rate applicable to the Debenture to the lesser of eighteen percent (18%) per annum and the maximum interest rate allowable under applicable law and accelerate the full indebtedness under the Debenture, in an amount equal to 115% of the outstanding principal amount and accrued and unpaid interest. The Debenture prohibits us from entering into a Variable Rate Transaction (as defined in the Debenture) until the Debenture is paid in full. 

 

Until the Debenture is repaid, the Company may not directly, or indirectly, incur, allow to exist or guarantee any indebtedness that is senior to the Debenture or secured by the assets of the Company other than (i) any indebtedness in existence prior to January 11, 2024, (ii) purchase money indebtedness to finance the purchase of fixed or capital assets (which does not to exceed the purchase price of the assets funded), (iii) indebtedness evidenced by a mortgage on real property (which does not exceed the appraised value of the property), and (iv) up to $1,200,000 in indebtedness (the “ERTC Indebtedness”) secured only by the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ assets and the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ employee retention tax credits, so long as such indebtedness is not convertible into the Company’s Common Stock and the Company does not issue any securities in connection with the ERTC Transaction.

 

The Warrant expires five years from its date of issuance. The Warrant is exercisable, at the option of the holder, at any time, for up to 375,000 of shares of our Common Stock at an exercise price equal to $0.53 (the “Exercise Price”), subject to adjustment for any stock splits, stock dividends, recapitalizations and similar events and in the event we, at any time while the Warrant is outstanding, issue, sell or grant any option to purchase, or sell or grant any right to reprice, or otherwise dispose of, or issue Common Stock or other securities convertible into, exercisable for, or otherwise entitle any person the right to acquire, shares of Common Stock, other than with respect to an Exempt Issuance, at an effective price per share that is lower than the then Exercise Price. In the event of any such anti-dilutive event, the Exercise Price will be reduced at the option of the holder to such lower effective price of the dilutive event, subject to a floor price of $0.088 per share.

 

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Under the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, a closing of the second tranche may occur subject to the mutual written agreement of Peak One and us and the satisfaction of the closing conditions set forth in the January 2024 Purchase Agreement at any time after March 11, 2024, upon which we would issue and sell to Peak One on the same terms and conditions a second 8% convertible debenture in the principal amount $650,000 and a second warrant to purchase up to 375,000 shares of Common Stock for a purchase price of $585,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%).

 

The Purchase Agreement further provides that at the closing of the second tranche the Company will pay $17,500 as an additional non-accountable fee to Peak One to cover its accounting fees, legal fees and other transactional costs incurred in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Purchase Agreement and will issue an additional 300,000 shares of its restricted Common Stock as a commitment fee, of which 150,000 will be issued to Peak One and 150,000 shares will be issued Peak One Investments.

 

We entered into a Registration Rights Agreement, dated January 11, 2024, with Peak One where we agreed to file a registration statement within 45 days of the date of the January 2024 Purchase Agreement to register the shares of our Common Stock issuable underlying the Debenture and the Warrants as well as the First Tranche Commitment Shares with the SEC and to use our reasonable efforts to have the registration statement declared effective by the SEC within ninety (90) calendar days from January 11, 2024. The registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is being filed to satisfy the obligations under the Registration Rights Agreement.

 

In connection with the closing of the first tranche of the January 2024 Offering, we paid a placement fee of $40,950 to Maxim Group LLC. Assuming the second tranche is closed, a placement fee in an amount equal to $40,950 will be payable by us to Maxim upon closing of the second tranche of the January 2024 Offering.

 

The January 2024 Purchase Agreement and the Registration Rights Agreement contain customary representations, warranties, agreements and conditions to completing future sale transactions, indemnification rights and obligations of the parties.

 

Exchange Cap

 

Under the applicable rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC and in accordance with the terms of the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, the number of shares of the our Common Stock that may be issued upon conversion of the Debentures, exercise of the Warrants, and inclusive of the Commitment Shares, is subject to an exchange cap of 19.99% of the outstanding number of shares of our Common Stock on the issuance date or 3,510,302 shares (the “Exchange Cap”), unless stockholder approval to exceed the Exchange Cap is approved. We agreed to hold a special meeting of stockholders within one hundred (100) calendar days after the date of the January 2024 Purchase Agreement for the purpose of obtaining stockholder approval of share issuances in excess of the Exchange Cap. Until such approval is obtained, the number of shares of Common Stock issued in the aggregate, pursuant to the January 2024 Purchase Agreement shall be limited to the Exchange Cap.

 

 In all instances, we may not sell shares of our Common Stock to the Selling Stockholders under the January 2024 Purchase Agreement if it would result in them beneficially owning more than 4.99% of our Common Stock, unless the holder delivers to us written notice at least sixty-one (61) days prior to the effective date of such notice that the provision be adjusted to 9.99% (the “Beneficial Ownership Cap”).

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

  

We will not receive any proceeds upon the sale of the shares of Common Stock by the Selling Stockholders in this offering. See “Plan of Distribution” elsewhere in this prospectus for more information.

 

We will receive approximately $198,750 of proceeds if the Warrant is exercised in full for cash based on the per share Exercise Price of the Warrant; however, the Warrant is exercisable on a cashless basis at the option of Peak One Investments. We currently intend to use any proceeds we receive for working capital and other general corporate purposes. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. We may use the proceeds for purposes that are not contemplated at the time of this offering.

 

We will pay the expenses of registration of the shares of our Common Stock covered by this prospectus, including legal and accounting fees.

 

The prices at which the shares of Common Stock are covered by this prospectus may actually be sold will be determined by the prevailing public market price for shares of our Common Stock, by negotiations between the Selling Stockholders and buyers of our Common Stock in private transactions or as otherwise described in “Plan of Distribution.”

 

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SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

 

The following table shows the ownership of our Common Stock beneficially owned by our current directors, named executive officers, our directors and current executive officers as a group and our 5% stockholders as of January 30, 2024 and as adjusted to reflect the sale of the securities offered by us in this offering (assuming the issuance of all of the 3,210,302 shares of Common Stock being registered in this offering which are not outstanding as of January 30, 2024), by (i) each current director, (ii) each named executive officer, (iii) each person who we know to be the beneficial owner of more than 5% of our Common Stock, and (iv) all current directors and executive officers as a group. The persons named in the table have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares of our Common Stock shown as beneficially owned by them. Percentage ownership prior to this offering is based on 18,177,845 shares of our Common Stock outstanding as of January 30, 2024. Percentage ownership after this offering is based on 21,388,147 shares of our Common Stock outstanding assuming the issuance of all of the 3,210,302 shares of Common Stock being registered in this offering which are not outstanding on the date hereof. 

 

Unless otherwise indicated, the address of each beneficial owner listed in the table below is c/o Safe and Green Development Corporation, 990 Biscayne Boulevard, #501, Office 12, Miami, Florida 33132.

 

Name of Beneficial Owner   Shares of
Common
Stock
Beneficially
Owned    
    Percentage of
Common
Stock
Beneficially
Owned Prior
to this
Offering
    Shares of
Common
Stock
Beneficially
Owned After
this
Offering  
    Percentage
of Common
Stock
Beneficially
Owned After
this
Offering
 
                         
Paul M. Galvin, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer     880,750 (2)     4.8 %     880,750 (2)     4.1 %
Patricia Kaelin, Chief Financial Officer     60,000       *       60,000       *  
William Rogers, Former Chief Operating Officer     181,767       1.0 %     181,767       *  
Jill Anderson, Director                        
Shafron Hawkins, Director     37,500       *       37,500       *  
Thomas Meharey, Director                        
Christopher Melton, Director     88,682 (3)     *       88,682 (3)     *  
David Villarreal, Director     150,000       *       150,000       *  
                                 
All current executive officers and directors as a group (7 persons)     1,216,932       6.7 %     1,216,932       5.7 %
                                 
5% Stockholders other than executive officers and directors                                
John William Shaw     3,970,100 (4)     21.8 %     3,970,100 (4)     18.6 %

 

*Less than 1% ownership interest.

 

(1) The securities “beneficially owned” by a person are determined in accordance with the definition of “beneficial ownership” set forth in the regulations of the SEC and, accordingly, may include securities owned by or for, among others, the spouse, children or certain other relatives of such person as well as other securities as to which the person has or shares voting or investment power. The same shares may be beneficially owned by more than one person. Shares of Common Stock currently issuable or issuable within 60 days of January 30, 2024 upon the exercise of options or vesting of restricted stock units are deemed to be outstanding in computing the beneficial ownership and percentage of beneficial ownership of the person holding such securities, but they are not deemed to be outstanding in computing the percentage of beneficial ownership of any other person. Beneficial ownership does not include stock options and restricted stock units which have not vested as of, and will not vest within 60 days of, January 30, 2024. Beneficial ownership may be disclaimed as to certain of the securities.

     

(2) Includes 856,443 shares of Common Stock held directly by Mr. Galvin and 507 shares held by TAG Partners, LLC (“TAG”), an investment partnership formed for the purpose of investing in the Company. Mr. Galvin is a managing member of, and has a controlling interest in, TAG and may be deemed to beneficially own the share of Common Stock held by TAG, over which he has shared voting and dispositive power. Mr. Galvin disclaims beneficial ownership of the shares of Common Stock held by TAG except to the extent of his pecuniary interest therein. Also includes 23,800 options to purchase our Common Stock presently exercisable.

 

(3) Includes 200 shares of Common Stock held in Mr. Melton’s retirement account, which Mr. Melton indirectly owns, and 88,482 shares of Common Stock held directly by Mr. Melton.

 

(4) The address of Mr. Shaw is 1005 E. Las Tunas Drive, #116, San Gabriel, California 91776. Mr. Shaw has provided the Company with an irrevocable proxy, which expires February 12, 2024, giving the Company the right to vote the shares of Common Stock held by Mr. Shaw.

 

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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

 

This prospectus covers the possible resale from time to time by the Selling Stockholders identified in the table below, including their pledgees, donees, transferees, assigns or other successors in interest, of up to an aggregate 3,510,302 shares of our Common Stock, which includes (i) 300,000 First Tranche Commitment Shares, of which 250,000 shares were issued to Peak One Investments and 50,000 shares were issued to Peak One upon the execution of the January 2024 Purchase Agreement; (ii) up to 375,000 shares of Common Stock to be issued to Peak One Investments upon exercise of the Warrant; and (iii) up to 2,835,302 shares of Common Stock to be issued to Peak One upon conversion of the Debenture. Peak One Investments is the General Partner of Peak One, both of which are Delaware entities.

 

We are filing the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part pursuant to the provisions of the Registration Rights Agreement, which we entered into with Peak One on January 11, 2024 concurrently with our execution of the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, in which we agreed to provide certain registration rights with respect to resales by Peak One and Peak One Investments of the shares of our Common Stock that have been or may be issued to Peak One and Peak One Investments under the January 2024 Purchase Agreement.

 

The Selling Stockholders identified in the table below may from time to time offer and sell under this prospectus any or all of the shares of Common Stock described under the column “Number of Shares of Common Stock Being Offered” in the table below. The table below has been prepared based upon information furnished to us by the Selling Stockholders as of the dates represented in the footnotes accompanying the table. The Selling Stockholders identified below may have sold, transferred or otherwise disposed of some or all of its shares since the date on which the information in the following table is presented in transactions exempt from or not subject to the registration requirements of the Securities Act. Information concerning the Selling Stockholders may change from time to time and, if necessary, we will amend or supplement this prospectus accordingly and as required.

 

The following table and footnote disclosure following the table sets forth the name of the Selling Stockholders, the nature of any position, office or other material relationship, if any, that the Selling Stockholders have had within the past three years with us or with any of our predecessors or affiliates, and the number of shares of our Common Stock beneficially owned by the Selling Stockholders before this offering. The number of shares reflected are those beneficially owned, as determined under applicable rules of the SEC, and the information is not necessarily indicative of beneficial ownership for any other purpose. Under applicable SEC rules, beneficial ownership includes any shares of Common Stock as to which a person has sole or shared voting power or investment power and any shares of Common Stock which the person has the right to acquire within 60 days after January 30, 2024 through the exercise of any option, warrant or right or through the conversion of any convertible security. Unless otherwise indicated in the footnotes to the table below and subject to community property laws where applicable, we believe, based on information furnished to us that the selling stockholders named in this table have sole voting and investment power with respect to the shares indicated as beneficially owned.

 

Other than as set forth in (i) –(v) below, the Selling Stockholders have not had any material relationship with us within the past three years: (i) transactions related to the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, (ii) the private placement offering consummated in February 2023 in which we issued a 8% convertible debenture with a principal amount of $1,100,000 to Peak One (the “February 2023 Debenture”), warrants to purchase up to 500,000 shares of our Common Stock to Peak One Investments, and 50,000 commitment shares to Peak One Investments for a purchase price of $1,000,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%) pursuant to a securities purchase agreement (the “February 2023 Purchase Agreement”), (iii) the equity purchase agreement (the “February 2023 EP Agreement”) and related registration rights agreement that we entered into with Peak One in February 2023, (iv) in connection with the Separation, Peak One Investments was issued shares of SG DevCorp common stock by us pursuant to the terms of the warrants issued in February 2023 and (v) in November 2023, SG DevCorp entered into an equity purchase agreement with Peak One and a securities purchase agreement pursuant to which it issued to Peak One and/or Peak One Investments a debenture, a warrant and commitment shares of SG DevCorp.

 

We have assumed that all shares of Common Stock reflected in the table as being offered in the offering covered by this prospectus will be sold from time to time in this offering. We cannot provide an estimate as to the number of shares of Common Stock that will be held by the Selling Stockholders upon termination of the offering covered by this prospectus because the Selling Stockholders may offer some, all or none of the shares of Common Stock being offered in the offering. Information about the Selling Stockholders may change over time. Any changed information will be set forth in an amendment to the registration statement or supplement to this prospectus, to the extent required by law.

 

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For purposes of the table below, 18,177,845 shares of Common Stock are outstanding as of January 30, 2024.

 

    Shares of
Common Stock Beneficially Owned Before this Offering
    Maximum Number of Shares of Common Stock     Shares of Common Stock to Be Beneficially Owned Upon Completion of this Offering        
Selling Stockholders   Number(2)     Being Offered     Number(3)     Percentage  
                                 
Peak One Opportunity Fund L.P. and Peak One Investments, LLC(1)     938,598     3,510,302     307,074       1.4 %

 

(1)Jason Goldstein exercises voting and dispositive power with respect to the shares of our Common Stock that are beneficially owned by Peak One and Peak One Investments.

 

(2) This number includes (i) the 300,000 First Tranche Commitment Shares, (ii) 331,884 shares of Common Stock that may be acquired by the Selling Stockholders upon exercise of the Warrant and conversion of the Debenture, and (iii) 307,074 shares of Common Stock that may be acquired by Peak One upon conversion of the February 2023 Debenture, including conversion of $7,654 of accrued interest, at the current conversion price of $0.46. In accordance with Rule 13d-3(d) under the Exchange Act, we have excluded from the number of shares beneficially owned prior to the offering by the Selling Stockholders all of the shares that Peak One may be required to purchase under the February 2023 EP Agreement, because the issuance of such shares is solely at our discretion and is subject to conditions contained in the February 2023 EP Agreement, the satisfaction of which are entirely outside of Peak One’s control. Also, the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, the February 2023 EP Agreement and the February 2023 Purchase Agreement prohibit us from issuing and selling any shares of our Common Stock to the Selling Stockholders to the extent such shares, when aggregated with all other shares of our Common Stock then beneficially owned by the Selling Stockholders, would cause the Selling Stockholders’ beneficial ownership of our Common Stock to exceed the 4.99% Beneficial Ownership Cap. The January 2024 Purchase Agreement also prohibits us from issuing or selling shares of our Common Stock pursuant to such agreements in excess of the 19.99% Exchange Cap, unless we obtain stockholder approval to do so, such that the Exchange Cap limitation would not apply under applicable Nasdaq rules. Neither the Beneficial Ownership Limitation nor the Exchange Cap (to the extent applicable under Nasdaq rules) may be amended or waived under such agreements.

 

(3)Assumes that all shares of Common Stock being registered under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part are sold in this offering, and that the Selling Stockholders do not acquire additional shares of our Common Stock after the date of this prospectus and prior to completion of this offering.

 

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MARKET INFORMATION FOR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY

 

Our Common Stock is currently listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGBX.” The last reported sale price of our Common Stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on February 7, 2024 was $0.33 per share of Common Stock.

 

Holders of Record

 

As of January 30, 2024, we had approximately 75 holders of record of our Common Stock. Because many of our shares of Common Stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, this number is not indicative of the total number of stockholders represented by these stockholders of record.

 

Dividends

 

We have never paid any cash dividends on our Common Stock and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay cash dividends on our Common Stock will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on various factors, including applicable laws, our results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, the terms of our outstanding indebtedness, and any other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the accompanying “Index to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this prospectus. Data as of and for the periods ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 has been derived from our audited financial statements appearing at the end of this prospectus. Data as of and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 has been derived from our unaudited condensed financial statements appearing at the end of this prospectus. Results for any interim period should not be construed as an inference of what our results would be for any full fiscal year or future period. This discussion and other parts of this prospectus contain forward-looking statements, such as those relating to our plans, objectives, expectations, intentions, and beliefs, which involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the sections titled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

Overview of the Company

 

We operate in the following four segments: (i) manufacturing and construction services; (ii) medical; (ii) real estate development; and (iv) environmental. The manufacturing and construction segment designs and manufactures modular structures built in our factories using raw materials that are Made-in-America. In the medical segment we have previously used our modular technology to offer prefabricated health facilities for on-site immediate COVID-19 testing and plan to provide our modular technology to offer turnkey solutions to medical testing and treatment and generating revenue from medical testing. Our real estate development segment’s current business focus is primarily on the direct acquisition and indirect investment in properties nationally that will be further developed in the future into green single or multi-family projects. The environmental segment, the newest segment, plans to offer a sustainable medical and waste management solution that will utilize a patented technology to collect waste and treat waste for safe disposal.

 

We are a provider of modular facilities. We currently provide Modules made out of both code-engineered cargo shipping containers and traditional construction using wood and steel framing for use as both permanent or temporary structures for residential housing use and commercial use. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Modules we supplied were primarily for retail, restaurant and military use and were manufactured by third party suppliers using our proprietary technology and design and engineering expertise, which modifies code-engineered cargo shipping containers and purpose-built modules for use for safe and sustainable commercial, industrial and residential building. In March 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic we began increasing our focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities for deployable medical response solutions. In September 2020, we acquired substantially all the assets of Echo DCL, LLC, a Texas limited liability company, except for Echo’s real estate holdings. Echo was a container/modular manufacturer based in Durant, Oklahoma specializing in the design and construction of permanent modular and temporary modular buildings and was one of our key supply chain partners.  This acquisition allowed us to have more control over the manufacturing process and, as a result, we have increased our product offerings to add Modules made out of wood, steel and traditional construction materials. 

 

During 2021, through our subsidiary, SG DevCorp we also began to focus on acquiring property to build multi-family housing projects in underserved regions nationally utilizing the manufacturing services of Echo. In March 2022, we formed SG Environmental to focus on biomedical waste removal utilizing a patented technology that it licenses to shred and disinfect biomedical waste, rendering the waste disinfected, unrecognizable, and of no greater risk to the public health than residential household waste. In March 2023, we formed Safe and Green Medical Corporation, to focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities with various clinics and labs that cater to the specific needs of local communities. To date, we have not generated revenue from SG DevCorp, SG Environmental or SG Medical.

 

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Recent Developments

 

Spin-Off of SG DevCorp

 

In December 2022, we announced our plan to separate our company and SG DevCorp into two separate publicly traded companies. To implement the Separation, on September 27, 2023, we, effected a pro rata distribution to our stockholders of approximately 30% of the outstanding shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock. In connection with the Distribution, each of our stockholders received 0.930886 shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock for every five (5) shares of our Common Stock held as of the close of business on September 8, 2023, the record date for the Distribution, as well as a cash payment in lieu of any fractional shares. Immediately after the Distribution, SG DevCorp was no longer a wholly owned subsidiary of ours and we held approximately 70% of SG DevCorp’s issued and outstanding securities. On September 28, 2023, SG DevCorp’s common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGD.”

 

In connection with the Separation and Distribution, we entered into a separation and distribution agreement and several other agreements with SG DevCorp. These agreements provide for the allocation between us and SG DevCorp of the assets, employees, liabilities and obligations (including, among others, investments, property, employee benefits and tax-related assets and liabilities) of us and our subsidiaries attributable to periods prior to, at and after the Separation and will govern the relationship between us and SG DevCorp subsequent to the completion of the Separation. In addition to the separation and distribution agreement, the other principal agreements entered into with us included a tax matters agreement and a shared services agreement.

 

We have agreed, contingent upon the closing of a current proposed best efforts offering, to pay Maxim Group LLC (together with its parents, subsidiaries and affiliates, “Maxim”) the following consideration in settlement of amounts owed to Maxim in connection with the Separation and Distribution: (i) $187,500 of the Company’s common stock; (ii) $187,500 cash payment; and (iii) a $375,000 promissory note bearing interest at a rate of 5% with a maturity date of the twelve month anniversary of the issuance date.

 

Peak One January 2024 Private Placement

 

On January 11, 2024, we entered into the January 2024 Purchase Agreement and Registration Rights Agreement with Peak One, pursuant to which we agreed to issue, in a private placement offering, upon the satisfaction of certain conditions specified in the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, two debentures to Peak One in the aggregate principal amount of $1,300,000.

 

The closing of the first tranche was consummated on January 12, 2024 and we issued the Debenture in the principal amount of $650,000 to Peak One and the Warrant to purchase up to 375,000 shares of our Common Stock to Peak One Investments. The Debenture was sold to Peak One for a purchase price of $585,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%). In connection with the January 2024 Offering, we paid $17,500 as a non-accountable fee to Peak One to cover its accounting fees, legal fees and other transactional costs incurred in connection with the transactions contemplated by the January 2024 Purchase Agreement and issued to Peak One and Peak One Investments an aggregate of 300,000 shares of our restricted Common Stock as commitment shares.

 

Under the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, a closing of the second tranche may occur subject to the mutual written agreement of Peak One and us and satisfaction of the closing conditions set forth in the January 2024 Purchase Agreement at any time after March 11, 2024, upon which we would issue and sell to Peak One, on the same terms and conditions, a second 8% convertible debenture in the principal amount of $650,000.00, and a second warrant to purchase up to 375,000 shares of our Common Stock, for a purchase price of $585,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%). The January 2024 Purchase Agreement further provides that at the closing of the second tranche we will pay $17,500 as an additional non-accountable fee to Peak One to cover its accounting fees, legal fees and other transactional costs incurred in connection with the transactions contemplated by the January 2024 Purchase Agreement and will issue an additional 300,000 shares of its restricted Common Stock as a commitment fee to Peak One and Peak One Investments.

 

As a result of the January 2024 Offering, the conversion price of the remaining $133,600 balance of the February 2023 Debenture was reduced to $0.46.

 

Impact of Inflation

 

Inflation has caused increases on some of the Company’s costs for construction and manufacturing projects in progress and completed during the past two fiscal years, which has affected the Company’s revenue and income (loss) from continuing operations.

 

Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

 

We have implemented business continuity plans designed to address and mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on our employees and business. Even though the global COVID-19 pandemic has ended, COVID-19 still remains a public health threat. As of the date hereof, our operations are not impacted by any COVID-19 related facility closures, lockdown measures, travel restrictions or similar limitations. However, new waves of COVID-19 or its variants could cause the reinstatement of such limitations, and such limitations may adversely impact our supply chains, the manufacturing of our products and our ability to obtain necessary materials, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Results of Operations

 

Our operations for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 and for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 may not be indicative of our future operations.  

 

Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023 and 2022

 

   For the Nine
Months Ended
September 30,
2023‌
   For the Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2022‌
 
Total revenue  $14,566,351   $20,289,826 
Total cost of revenue   (15,138,225)   (17,196,605)
Total payroll and related expenses   (6,318,728)   (3,650,553)
Total operating expenses   (4,955,445)   (2,853,818)
Total operating loss   (11,846,047)   (3,411,150)
Total other income (expense)   (837,051)   347,131 
Total loss before income tax   (12,683,098)   (3,064,019)
Add: Net income attributable non-controlling interest       1,522,101 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders of Safe & Green Holdings Corp.  $(12,683,098)  $(4,586,120)

 

Revenue

 

During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, we derived revenue solely from our construction segment. Total revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 was $14,566,351 compared to $20,289,826 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022. This decrease of $5,723,475 or approximately 28.21% was mainly driven by no medical revenue during the nine months ended September 30, 2023, and by an increase in construction services of $5,998,783.

 

Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit 

 

Cost of revenue was $15,138,225 for the nine months ended September 30, 2023, compared to $17,196,605 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022. The decrease of $2,058,380 or a decrease of approximately 11.97%, is primarily related to no services being provided for the medical segment during the nine months ended September 30, 2023.

 

Gross profit (loss) was $(571,874) and $3,093,221 for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

Gross profit (loss) margin percentage decreased to (4)% for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 compared to 15.25% for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 primarily due to no engineering services and medical revenue being generated during the nine months ended September 30, 2023.

 

Operating Expenses

 

Payroll and related expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 were $6,318,728 compared to $3,650,553 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022. This increase was primarily caused by an increase in headcount and salary expenses during the nine months ended September 30, 2023, as well as the vesting of additional restricted stock units during 2023.

 

Other operating expenses (general and administrative expenses, marketing and business development expenses, pre-project expenses) for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 were $4,955,445 compared to $2,853,818 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022.

 

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Other Income (Expense)

 

Interest income for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 was $22,002 mainly derived from bank interest and interest associated with an outstanding note receivable. There was $33,518 of interest income for the nine months ended September 30, 2022. There was $690,939 and $488,346 of other income for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. Interest expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 was $1,549,992 and $174,733, respectively. The increase in interest expense resulted from an increase in notes payable balances during 2023.

 

Three Months Ended September 30, 2023 and 2022:

 

   For the Three
Months Ended
September 30,
2023‌
   For the Three
Months Ended
September 30,
2022‌
 
Total revenue  $3,965,361   $4,130,257 
Total cost of revenue   (4,501,393)   (4,295,431)
Total payroll and related expenses   (819,909)   (1,294,857)
Total operating expenses   (1,619,179)   (1,042,155)
Total operating loss   (2,975,120)   (2,502,186)
Total other income (expense)   (633,014)   (45,965)
Total loss before income tax   (3,608,134)   (2,548,151)
Add: Net income attributable non-controlling interest       (94,568)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders of Safe & Green Holdings Corp.  $(3,608,134)  $(2,453,583)

 

Revenue

 

During the three months ended September 30, 2023, we derived revenue solely from our construction segment. Total revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2023 was $3,965,361 compared to $4,130,257 for the three months ended September 30, 2022. This decrease of $164,896 or approximately 3.99% was mainly driven by  an increase in construction services,  and no medical revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2023.  

 

Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit

 

Cost of revenue was $4,501,393 for the three months ended September 30, 2023, compared to $4,295,431 for the three months ended September 30, 2022. The increase of $205,962 or an increase of approximately 4.79%, is primarily related to increase in construction services during the three months ended September 30, 2023.

 

Gross profit  (loss) was $(536,032) and $(165,174) for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

Gross (loss) margin percentage decreased to (14)% for the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to (4)% for the three months ended September 30, 2022 primarily due to no medical revenue being generated during the three months ended September 30, 2023.

 

Operating Expenses

 

Payroll and related expenses for the three months ended September 30, 2023 were $819,909 compared to $1,294,857 for the three months ended September 30, 2022. This decrease was primarily caused by a decrease in headcount and salary expenses during the three months ended September 30, 2023.

 

Other operating expenses (general and administrative expenses, marketing and business development expenses, pre-project expenses) for the three months ended September 30, 2023 were $1,619,179 compared to $1,042,155 for the three months ended September 30, 2022.

 

Other Income (Expense)

 

Interest income for the three months ended September 30, 2023 was $3,186 mainly derived from bank interest and interest associated with an outstanding note receivable. There was $9,756 of interest income for the three months ended September 30, 2022. There was $102,449 and $(2,963) of other income for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. Interest expense for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 was $738,649 and $52,758 respectively. The increase in interest expense resulted from an increase in notes payable balances during 2023.

 

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Income Tax Provision

 

A 100% valuation allowance was provided against the deferred tax asset consisting of available net operating loss carry forwards and, accordingly, no income tax benefit was provided.

 

Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021:

 

   For the Year Ended
December 31,
2022
   For the Year Ended December 31,
2021
 
Revenue        
Construction services (includes engineering)  $12,752,219   $6,793,690 
Medical revenue   11,641,727    31,548,012 
Total   24,393,946    38,341,702 
           
Year over year % growth:          
Construction services   88%   50%
Medical revenue   (63)%   644%
Consolidated   (36)%   388%
           
Net revenue % mix:          
Construction services   52%   18%
Medical revenue   48%   82%
Consolidated   100%   100%
           
Operating Income (Loss)          
Construction services   (472,039)   (7,041,313)
Medical   2,588,830    8,405,332 
Development   (2,137,866)   (203,078)
Corporate and Support   (7,208,895)   (7,143,791)
Consolidated   (7,229,970)   (5,982,850)
Other Income (Expenses)   140,728    74,478 
Add: Net profit attributable to common stockholders of Safe & Green Holdings Corp.   1,229,806    4,924,302 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders of Safe & Green Holdings Corp.   (8,319,048)   (10,832,674)

 

Revenue

 

During the year ended December 31, 2022, we derived substantially all of our revenue from the following two segments: construction services and medical revenue. Total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $24,393,946 compared to $38,341,702 for the year ended December 31, 2021. Revenue decreased 36% in 2022, compared to the prior year. 

 

Medical revenue decreased 63% in 2022 compared to the prior year. The revenue decline primarily resulted from the decline in COVID-19 testing requirements during the year ended December 31, 2022. The majority of the medical revenue came from operations of our Clarity Mobile joint venture.

 

Construction services revenue increased 88% in 2022 compared to the prior year. The revenue growth primarily was due to the acquisition of Echo DCL, LLC in September 2020. The revenue growth reflects increased modular revenue from SG Echo’s manufacturing facility.

 

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Operating Income (Loss)

 

Operating loss was $7,229,970 for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to $5,982,850 for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing an increase of $1,247,120 or 21% in 2022 compared to the prior year.

 

Construction services operating loss in 2022 was $472,039 as compared to the prior year’s operating loss of $7,041,313, primarily due to an increase of jobs and delivery of modular units. The costs of materials such as lumber, plumbing, roofing, and other supplies to modify and build these units were increased due in part to COVID-19 supply chain issues. We purchased Echo in 2020 and assumed their current projects that had lower gross margins due to the increase in materials prices. In addition, we incurred higher than expected material and labor costs on several prototype modules projects in 2021 in order to win future revenue orders.

 

Medical revenue operating income in 2022 was $2,588,830, as compared to the prior year’s operating income of $8,405,332, primarily due to decreased testing samples being collected at our COVID-19 laboratory at LAX airport, partially offset by increased labor costs and lower than anticipated testing volume with our COVID-19 testing program with Memorial Healthcare in Wayne County, Michigan. We have ceased operations with Memorial Healthcare in Q4 2021.

 

Development operating loss in 2022 was related to operating expenses incurred for certain development projects that were started in 2021 and currently being developed for future use. No revenue was generated by our development segment in 2022 to offset these operating expenses.

 

Corporate and support operating loss increased in 2022, as compared to the prior year, and such increase was primarily due to increased overhead costs, increased expenses related to SEC compliance and legal costs, increased payroll due to additional head count in SG Echo and stock compensation in order to retain key employees, increases in IT support and increases in insurance expenses to support our various operations.

 

Other Income (Expense)

 

Interest income for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $73,821 mainly derived from bank interest and interest associated with an outstanding note receivable. There was $57,266 of interest income for the year ended December 31, 2021. Other income for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $403,146 and $62,602, respectively. Other income during 2022 primarily related to a return of escrow from the SG Echo acquisition in the amount of $406,438, legal settlement income of $150,000 and the write-off of accounts payable in the amount of $177,965. Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $336,239 and $1,254, respectively. The increase in interest expense resulted from the notes payable entered into during July 2021. Loss on asset disposal for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $44,081.

 

Income Tax Provision

 

A 100% valuation allowance was provided against the deferred tax asset consisting of available net operating loss carryforwards and, accordingly, no income tax benefit was provided.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 we had an aggregate of $712,906 and $582,776, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we had an aggregate of $582,776 and $13,024,381, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents.

 

Historically, our operations have primarily been funded through proceeds from equity and debt financings, as well as revenue from operations.

 

We have negative operating cash flows, which has raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

If we are not successful with our efforts to increase revenue, we may experience, as we have from time to time in the past, a shortfall in cash. If there is a shortfall, we may be forced to reduce operating expenses, among other steps, all of which would have a material adverse effect on our operations going forward. On December 15, 2023, Mr. Galvin voluntarily deferred his salary for the December 15, 2023 and December 31, 2023 pay periods as a cost saving measure. In addition, on December 14, 2023, Mr. Galvin loaned $75,000 to the Company. The loan will be interest free (subject, however to any interest which may be imputed under applicable income tax laws) and is due and payable by December 14, 2024. In addition, we have issued various types of debt to provide funds for operations as set forth below.

 

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We may also seek to obtain debt or additional equity financing to meet any cash shortfalls both in the public company or our subsidiaries. The type, timing and terms of any financing we may select will depend on, among other things, our cash needs, the availability of other financing sources and prevailing conditions in the financial markets. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to secure additional funds if needed and that, if such funds are available, the terms or conditions would be acceptable to us, especially in light of the fact that our ability to sell securities registered on our registration statement on Form S-3 will be limited until such time as we are S-3 eligible and thereafter when the market value of our voting securities held by non-affiliates is $75 million or more. If we are unable to secure additional financing, further reduction in operating expenses might need to be substantial in order for us to ensure enough liquidity to sustain our operations. Any equity financing would be dilutive to our stockholders. If we incur debt, we will likely be subject to restrictive covenants that significantly limit our operating flexibility and require us to encumber our assets. If we fail to raise sufficient funds and continue to incur losses, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of strategic opportunities, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures will be significantly limited. While the Debenture is outstanding, we are prohibited from entering into any variable rate transactions and from incurring or suffering to exist debt other than certain specified permitted debt. Any of the above limitations could force us to significantly curtail or cease our operations. These circumstances have raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, and continued cash losses may risk our status as a going concern. Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern.

 

We continue to generate losses from operations. At September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 we had a cash balance of $712,906 and $582,776, respectively. As of September 30, 2023, our stockholders’ equity was $6,417,026 compared to $14,439,562 as of December 31, 2022 and an accumulated deficit of $62,211,370. Our net loss attributable to our common stockholders for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 was $12,683,098 and net cash used in operating activities was $4,671,862.

 

As of December 31, 2022, our stockholders’ equity was $14,439,562 compared to $21,715,789 as of December 31, 2021. Our net loss for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $7,089,242 and $5,908,372, respectively. Net cash used in operating activities was $5,630,614 and $662,759 for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase resulted mainly from a decrease of approximately $5,500,000 in working capital, an increase of approximately $1,150,000 in non-cash stock compensation expense offset by an increase in the overall net loss of approximately $1,180,000 in the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to year ended December 31, 2021.

 

We will need to generate additional revenues or secure additional financing sources, such as debt or equity capital, to fund future operations, which financing may not be available on favorable terms or at all. If we fail to raise sufficient funds and continue to incur losses, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of strategic opportunities, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures will be significantly limited and we may need to significantly curtail or cease our operations.

 

October 2021 Registered Direct Offering

 

In October 2021, we completed a registered direct offering and concurrent private offering pursuant to which we sold an aggregate of 975,000 shares of Common Stock and pre-funded warrants to purchase up to 2,189,384 shares of Common Stock and warrants to purchase 1,898,630 shares of Common Stock which resulted in net proceeds of approximately $10,488,000 after deducting underwriting commission and other expenses related to the offering. 

 

February 2023 Offering

 

On February 7, 2023, we closed a private placement offering (the “February 2023 Offering”) $1,100,000 in principal amount of the Company’s 8% convertible debenture and a warrant to purchase up to 500,000 shares of our Common Stock, to Peak One. Pursuant to the February 2023 Purchase Agreement, the February 2023 Debenture was sold to Peak One for a purchase price of $1,000,000, representing an original issue discount of ten percent (10%). In connection with the February 2023 Offering we paid $15,000 as a non-accountable fee to Peak One to cover its accounting fees, legal fees and other transactional costs incurred in connection with the transactions contemplated by the February 2023 Purchase Agreement and issued 50,000 commitment shares to Peak One Investments. During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, Peak One converted $700,000 of its principal balance into 466,664 shares of Common Stock of the Company.

 

The February 2023 Debenture matures twelve months from its date of issuance and bears interest at a rate of 8% per annum payable on the maturity date. The February 2023 Debenture is convertible, at the option of the holder, at any time, into such number of shares of Common Stock of the Company equal to the principal amount of the February 2023 Debenture plus all accrued and unpaid interest at an original conversion price equal to $1.50 (the “February 2023 Conversion Price”), subject to adjustment for any stock splits, stock dividends, recapitalizations and similar events and in the event the Company, at any time while the February 2023 Debenture is outstanding, issues, sells or grants any option to purchase, or sells or grants any right to reprice, or otherwise disposes of, or issues Common Stock or other securities convertible into, exercisable for, or otherwise entitle any person the right to acquire, shares of Common Stock, other than with respect to an Exempt Issuance (as defined in the February 2023 Debenture), at an effective price per share that is lower than the then February 2023 Conversion Price. In the event of any such anti-dilutive event, the February 2023 Conversion Price will be reduced at the option of the holder to such lower effective price of the dilutive event, subject to a floor price of $0.40 per share, unless and until the Company obtains shareholder approval for any issuance below such floor price. See “— Recent Developments — Peak One January 2024 Private Placement.”

 

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Cedar Cash Advances

 

On May 16, 2023, SG Building entered into a cash advance agreement with Cedar Advance LLC (“Cedar”) pursuant to which SG Building sold to Cedar $710,500 of its future receivables for a purchase price of $500,000. Cedar is expected to withdraw $25,375 a week directly from SG Building, until the $710,500 due to Cedar is paid in full. In the event of a default (as defined in the cash advance agreement), Cedar, among other remedies, can demand payment in full of all amounts remaining due under the cash advance agreement. SG Building’s obligations under the cash advance agreement have been guaranteed by SG Echo.

 

On September 26, 2023, SG Building and Cedar entered into a second cash advance agreement pursuant to which SG Building sold to Cedar $1,171,500 of its future receivables for a purchase price of $825,000, less underwriting fees and expenses paid and the repayment of prior amounts due Cedar, for net funds provided of $504,625. Cedar is expected to withdraw $41,800 a week directly from SG Building, until the $1,171,500 due to Cedar is paid in full. In the event of a default (as defined in the cash advance agreement), Cedar, among other remedies, can demand payment in full of all amounts remaining due under the cash advance agreement. SG Building’s obligations under the cash advance agreement have been guaranteed by SG Echo.

 

On November 20, 2023, SG Building entered into a third cash advance agreement with Cedar pursuant to which SG Building sold to Cedar $511,200 of its future receivables for a purchase price of $360,000, less underwriting fees and expenses paid, for net funds provided of $342,200. Cedar is expected to withdraw $20,300 a week directly from SG Building’s bank account until the $511,200 due to Cedar under the cash advance agreement is paid. In the event of a default (as defined in the cash advance agreement), Cedar, among other remedies, can demand payment in full of all amounts remaining due under the Cash Advance Agreement. SG Building ’s obligations under the cash advance agreement have been guaranteed by SG Echo.

 

On January 29, 2024, SG Building and Cedar entered into a fourth cash advance agreement pursuant to which SG Building sold to Cedar $1,733,420 of its future receivables for a purchase price of $1,180,000, less underwriting fees and expenses paid and the repayment of prior amounts due Cedar, for net funds provided of $215,575. Cedar is expected to withdraw $49,150 a week directly from SG Building, until the $1,733,420 due to Cedar is paid in full. In the event of a default (as defined in the cash advance agreement), Cedar, among other remedies, can demand payment in full of all amounts remaining due under the cash advance agreement. SG Building’s obligations under the cash advance agreement have been guaranteed by SG Echo.

 

January Cash Advance Agreement

 

On January 5, 2024, SG Building and SG Echo (collectively, the “Merchants”), entered into a Cash Advance Agreement (“Cash Advance Agreement”) with Maison Capital Group (“Maison”) pursuant to which the Merchants sold to Maison $300,000 of their future receivables for a purchase price of $200,000, less underwriting fees and expenses paid, for net funds provided of $190,000.

 

Pursuant to the Cash Advance Agreement, Maison is expected to withdraw $12,500 a week directly from the Merchants’ bank account until the $300,000 due to Maison under the Cash Advance Agreement is paid. In the event of a default (as defined in the Cash Advance Agreement), Maison, among other remedies, can demand payment in full of all amounts remaining due under the Cash Advance Agreement. The Merchants’ obligations under the Cash Advance Agreement are secured by a security interest in all accounts, including without limitation, all deposit accounts, accounts-receivable, and other receivables, chattel paper, documents, equipment, general intangibles, instruments, and inventory, as those terms are defined by Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code, now or hereafter owned or acquired by any of them. In addition, SG Building’s obligations under the Cash Advance Agreement have been guaranteed by SG Echo, and SG Echo’s obligations under the Cash Advance Agreement have been guaranteed by SG Building. The amounts outstanding under the Cash Advance Agreement may be prepaid by the Merchants at any time without penalty.

 

Southstar Factoring Agreement

 

In connection with the exercise of its option to acquire 19 acres of land and the approximately 56,775 square foot facility located at 101 Waldron Road in Durant Oklahoma (the “Premises”), on June 8, 2023, SG Echo issued a secured commercial promissory note, dated June 1, 2023 (the “Secured Note”), in the principal amount of $1,750,000 with SouthStar Financial, LLC, a South Carolina limited liability company (“SouthStar”), and entered into a Non-Recourse Factoring and Security Agreement, dated June 1, 2023 (the “Factoring Agreement”), with SouthStar providing for its purchase from SG Echo of up to $1,500,000 of accounts receivable, subject to reduction by South Star (the “Facility Amount”).

 

The Secured Note bears interest at 23% per annum and is due and payable on June 1, 2025. The Secured Note is secured by a mortgage (the “Mortgage”) on the Premises and secured by a Security Agreement, dated June 1, 2023 (the “Security Agreement”), pursuant to which SG Echo granted to SouthStar a first priority security interest in all of SG Echo’s presently-owned and hereafter-acquired personal and fixture property, wherever located, including, without limitation, all accounts, goods, chattel paper, inventory, equipment, instruments, investment property, documents, deposit accounts, commercial tort claims, letters-of-credit rights, general intangibles including payment intangibles, patents, software trademarks, trade names, customer lists, supporting obligations, all proceeds and products of the foregoing. SG Echo paid to SouthStar an origination fee in the amount of 3% of the face amount of the Secured Note. Upon the occurrence of an Event of Default (as defined in the Secured Note), the default interest rate will be 28% per annum, or the maximum legal amount provided by law, whichever is greater.

 

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The Factoring Agreement provides that upon acceptance of an account receivable for purchase SouthStar will pay to SG Echo eighty percent (80%) of the face amount of the account receivable, or such lesser percentage as agreed by the parties. SG Echo will also pay to SouthStar one and 95/100 percent (1.95%) of the face amount of the accounts receivable for the first twenty-five (25) day period after payment for the accounts receivable is transmitted to SouthStar plus one and 25/100 percent (1.25%) for each additional fifteen (15) day period or part thereof, calculated from the date of purchase until payments received by SouthStar in collected funds on the purchased accounts receivable equals the purchase price of the accounts receivable, plus all charges due SouthStar from SG Echo at the time. An additional one and 50/100 percent (1.50%) per fifteen (15) day period will be charged for invoices exceeding sixty (60) days from advance date. The Factoring Agreement provides that SG Echo may require additional funding from SouthStar (an “Overadvance”) and SouthStar may provide the Overadvance in its sole discretion. In the event of an Overadvance, SG Echo will pay SouthStar an amount equal to three and 90/100 percent (3.90%) of the amount of the Overadvance for the first twenty-five (25) day period after the Overadvance is transmitted to SouthStar plus two and 50/100 percent (2.50%) for each additional fifteen (15) day period or part thereof until payments received by SouthStar in collected funds equals the amount of the Overadvance, plus all charges due SouthStar from SG Echo at the time.

 

The Factoring Agreement provides that SG Echo will also pay a transactional administrative fee of $50.00 for each new account debtor submitted to it and a fee equal to 0.25% of the face amount of all purchased accounts receivable for the handling, collecting, mailing, quality assuring, insuring the risk, transmitting, and performing certain data processing services with respect to the maintenance and servicing of the purchased accounts.

 

As security for the payment and performance of SG Echo’s present and future obligations to SouthStar under the Factoring Agreement, SG Echo granted to SouthStar a first priority security interest in all of SG Echo’s presently-owned and hereafter-acquired personal and fixture property, wherever located, including, without limitation, all accounts, goods, chattel paper, inventory, equipment, instruments, investment property, documents, deposit accounts, commercial tort claims, letters-of-credit rights, general intangibles including payment intangibles, patents, software trademarks, trade names, customer lists, supporting obligations, all proceeds and products of the foregoing. 

 

The Factoring Agreement has an initial term of thirty-six (36) months from the first day of the month following the date the first purchased accounts receivable is purchased. Unless terminated by SG Echo, not less than sixty (60) but not more than ninety (90) days before the end of the initial term, the Factoring Agreement will automatically extend for an additional thirty-six (36) months. SG Echo is required to provide the same not less than sixty (60) but not more than ninety (90) days notice during any and all renewal terms in order to terminate the Factoring Agreement, and if no notice is provided, the renewal term will extend for an additional thirty-six (36) month period.

 

If SouthStar has not purchased accounts receivable in a quarterly period during any initial or renewal term which exceed fifty percent (50%) of the Facility Amount per calendar quarter, in which $250,000.00 of the purchased accounts each month must be with a specific customer of the Company. (“Minimum Amount”), the Factoring Agreement provides that SG Echo will pay to SouthStar, on demand, an additional amount equal to what the charges provided for elsewhere in the Factoring Agreement would have been on the Minimum Amount assuming the number of days from the date of purchase of the Minimum Amount until receipt of payment of the Minimum Amount is thirty one (31) days, less the actual charges paid by SG Echo to SouthStar during such period.

 

Pursuant to a Secured Continuing Corporate Guaranty, dated June 8, 2023 (the “Corporate Guaranty”), we have guaranteed SG Echo’s obligations to SouthStar under the Secured Note and Factoring Agreement.

 

Pursuant to a Cross-Default and Cross Collateralization Agreement (the “Cross Default Agreement”), effective June 8, 2023, between SouthStar, SG Echo and us, SG Echo’s obligations under the Secured Note and Factoring Agreement are cross-defaulted and cross-collateralized such that any event of default under the Secured Note shall constitute an event of default under the Factoring Agreement at SouthStar’s election (and vice versa, any event of default under the Factoring Agreement shall constitute an event of default under the Secured Note at SouthStar’s election) and any collateral pledged to secure SG Echo’s obligations under the Secured Note shall also secure SG Echo’s obligations under the Factoring Agreement (and vice versa).

 

BCV Loan Agreement

 

On June 23 2023, SG DevCorp, entered into a Loan Agreement (the “BCV Loan Agreement”) with a Luxembourg-based specialized investment fund, BCV S&G DevCorp (“BCV S&G”), for up to $2,000,000 in proceeds, of which it initially received $1,250,000. The BCV Loan Agreement provides that the loan provided thereunder will bear interest at 14% per annum and mature on December 1, 2024. The loan may be repaid by SG DevCorp at any anytime following the twelve-month anniversary of its issue date. The loan is secured by 1,999,999 of our shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock (the “Pledged Shares”), which were pledged pursuant to an escrow agreement (the “Escrow Agreement”) with American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC n/k/a Equiniti Trust Company, LLC, SG DevCorp’s transfer agent. The fees associated with the issuance include $70,000 paid to BCV S&G for the creation of the BCV Loan Agreement and $27,500 payable to BCV S&G per annum for maintaining the BCV Loan Agreement. Additionally, $37,500 in broker fees was paid to Bridgeline Capital Partners S.A. on the principal amount raised of $1,250,000. The BCV Loan Agreement further provided that if SG DevCorp’s shares of common stock were not listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market before August 30, 2023 or if following such listing the total market value of the Pledged Shares fell below twice the face value of the loan, the loan would be further secured by SG DevCorp’s St. Mary’s industrial site, consisting of 29.66 acres and a proposed manufacturing facility in St. Mary’s, Georgia (the “St. Mary’s Site”). 

 

On August 16, 2023, SG DevCorp secured an additional $500,000 in bridge funding from BCV S&G under the BCV Loan Agreement.

 

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On August 25, 2023, SG DevCorp and BCV S&G amended the BCV Loan Agreement (“Amendment No. 1”) to change the date upon which SG DevCorp’s shares were required to be listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market from August 30, 2023 to September 15, 2023. According to Amendment No. 1, if SG DevCorp’s shares of common stock were not listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market before September 15, 2023 or if following such listing the total market value of the Pledged Shares falls below twice the face value of the loan, the loan will be further secured by a security interest in the St. Mary’s Site.

 

On September 11, 2023, SG DevCorp and BCV S&G amended the BCV Loan Agreement (“Amendment No. 2”) to change the date upon which SG DevCorp’s shares were required to be listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market from September 15, 2023 to September 30, 2023. According to Amendment No. 2, if SG DevCorp’s shares of common stock were not listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market before September 30, 2023 or if following such listing the total market value of the Pledged Shares falls below twice the face value of the loan, the loan will be further secured by a security interest in the St. Mary’s Site. Following the listing, the total market value of the Pledged Shares has fallen below twice the face value of the loan and SG DevCorp and BCV S&G are in discussions regarding alternatives, if any.

 

Additional Indebtedness

  

ERTC Loan. SG Building and SG Echo are in the process of finalizing an Employee Retention Tax Credit Term Loan (the “ ERTC Loan”) with Cross River Bank (the “Bank”) pursuant to which SG Building and SG Echo would collectively borrow $600,000 from the Bank secured by SG Building and SG Echo’s business assets and all Employee Retention Tax Credit proceeds (the “ERTC Proceeds”) that SG Building and SG Echo expect to receive from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service relating to the 2021 tax year. The net loan amount expected to be received by SG Building and SG Echo is $575,251 after payment of an origination fee of $24,000 and an underwriting fee of $749. The ERTC Loan would bear interest at the rate of 24% per annum and would be payable five business days after the date the ERTC Proceeds are received by SG Building and SG Echo from the IRS (the “Mandatory Prepayment Date”).

 

The loan agreement is expected to provide that the ERTC Loan will be in an interest-only period (the “Interest Only Period”) from the Loan funding date until the sooner of (i) the 12-month anniversary of the ERTC Loan funding date and (ii) the Mandatory Prepayment Date. During the Interest Only Period, SG Building and SG Echo would collectively pay monthly interest payments of $12,000 to the Bank. Unless terminated during the Interest Only Period, an amortization period (the “Amortization Period”) would start on the 12-month anniversary of the ERTC Loan funding date through the sooner of (i) the 36-month anniversary of the ERTC Loan funding date and (ii) the Mandatory Prepayment Date. During the Amortization Period, SG Building Blocks and SG Echo would collectively make monthly interest and principal payments of $31,722.66 to the Bank. The monthly periodic payments during the Interest Only Period and the Amortization Period would be subject to a late fee equal to 5% of such payments for any late payments that are received by the Bank.

 

The initial term of the ERTC Loan is expected to be 12 Months from the ERTC Loan funding date, provided that the loan agreement would terminate on the Mandatory Prepayment Date. Therefore, if as of the last day of the Interest Only Period, the ERTC Proceeds shall have not been received by SG Building and SG Echo from the IRS such that the Mandatory Prepayment Date shall not have occurred, it is anticipated that the Amortization Period would commence and the term of the Loan would be automatically extended to 36 Months from the ERTC Loan funding date.

 

It is anticipated that the loan will be guaranteed by Patricia Kaelin, the Company’s Chief Financial Officer, and Paul Galvin, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer. There can be no assurance that SG Building and SG Echo will finalize the ERTC Loan and that it will be funded.

 

Short Term Promissory Note. The Company is currently in the process of negotiating an additional $237,500 promissory note with an additional lender which will have a term of nine months and incur interest at 10% per annum.

 

Cash Flow Summary for Nine Months Ended September 2023 and 2022

 

  

Nine Months Ended

September 30,

 
   2023   2022 
Net cash provided by (used in):        
Operating activities  $(4,671,862)  $(5,553,160)
Investing activities   (692,604)   (3,549,372)
Financing activities   5,494,596    (1,803,680)
Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents  $130,130   $(10,906,212)

 

Cash Flow Summary for Year Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

 

  

For The Year Ended

December 31,

 
   2022   2021 
Net cash provided by (used in):          
Operating activities  $(5,630,614)  $(662,759)
Investing activities   (3,853,298)   (9,471,257)
Financing activities   (2,957,693)   10,148,041 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents  $(12,441,605)  $14,025 

 

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Operating activities used net cash of $4,671,862 during the nine months ended September 30, 2023, and used net cash of $5,553,160 during the nine months ended September 30, 2022. Generally, our net operating cash flows fluctuate primarily based on changes in our profitability and working capital. Cash used in operating activities decreased by approximately $881,298. Operating activities used net cash of $5,630,614 during the year ended December 31, 2022, and $662,759 during the year ended December 31, 2021. Generally, our net operating cash flows fluctuate primarily based on changes in our profitability and working capital. Cash used in operating activities increased by approximately $5,000,000 primarily due to a decrease in working capital due in part to decreases in accounts payable with the additions of operations of new entities, SG DevCorp and SG Echo, from the corresponding period of the prior years. In addition, we had an increase of approximately $1,085,000 in stock-based compensation and an increase in the overall net loss of approximately $1,181,000, during the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

Investing activities used net cash of $692,604 during the nine months ended September 30, 2023, and $3,549,372 net cash during the nine months ended September 30, 2022 a decrease in cash used of $2,856,768. This amount resulted from a decrease due to project development costs of $119,885, decrease of  $42,662 because of investment in and advances to equity affiliates, and a decrease of $530,055 due to purchase of property , plant, and equipment. Investing activities used net cash of $3,853,298 during the year ended December 31, 2022, and $9,451,257 during the year ended December 31, 2021. Cash used in investing activities decreased from the corresponding period of the prior year primarily due to the purchase of property, plant and equipment of approximately $4,820,000 which includes the land purchase for the Lago Vista – Austin project and investments in two SG DevCorp entities totaling approximately $3,600,000 during 2021.

 

Financing activities provided net cash of $5,494,596 during the nine months ended September 30, 2023. Financing activities used $1,803,680 net cash during the nine months ended September 30, 2022. This amount resulted from a decrease of $7,298,276 due to repurchase of Common Stock, decrease of $2,732,144 due to repayment of short term notes payable, increase of $7,609,514 from the proceeds from short term notes payable and warrants, net of debt issuance costs, an increase of $706, 359 due to the proceeds from long term notes payable, and a decrease of $46,417 due to distribution to non-controlling interest. Financing activities used net cash of $2,957,693 during the year ended December 31, 2022, and provided net cash of $10,148,041 during the year ended December 31, 2021. Cash provided by financing activities decreased by approximately $13,106,000 due to approximately $10,488,000 received in proceeds from a public stock offering and proceeds of $2,000,000 from the proceeds of a short-term note payable during the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

We provide services to our construction and engineering customers in three separate phases: the design phase, the architectural and engineering phase and the construction phase. Each phase is independent of the other, but builds through a progression of concept through delivery of a completed structure. These phases may be embodied in a single contract or in separate contracts, which is typical of a design build process model. As of September 30, 2023, we had eleven projects totaling $1,306,849 under contract. Of these contracts, all eleven projects combine all three phases or parts thereof and including construction. As of December 31, 2022, we had 11 projects totaling $6,810,762 under contract, which, if they all proceed to construction, will result in us constructing approximately 68,000 square feet of modular space. Of these contracts, all eleven (11) projects combine all three phases or parts thereof and including construction. 

 

Backlog may fluctuate significantly due to the timing of orders or awards for large projects and is not necessarily indicative of future backlog levels or the rate at which backlog will be recognized as revenue. Our backlog decreased by approximately $3,000,000 from December 31, 2022 to September 30, 2023. Backlog does not include COVID tests or testing services provided through our joint venture, Clarity Mobile Venture. The increase in backlog at December 31, 2022 is primarily attributable to one new contract we entered into during the fourth quarter of 2022 for approximately $5,771,000.

 

There can be no assurance that our customers will decide to and/or be able to proceed with these construction and manufacturing projects, or that we will ultimately recognize revenue from these projects in a timely manner or at all.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

As of September 30, 2023 and as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had no material off-balance sheet arrangements to which we are a party.

 

In the ordinary course of business, we enter into agreements with third parties that include indemnification provisions which, in our judgment, are normal and customary for companies in our industry sector. These agreements are typically with consultants and certain vendors. Pursuant to these agreements, we generally agree to indemnify, hold harmless, and reimburse indemnified parties for losses suffered or incurred by the indemnified parties with respect to actions taken or omitted by us. The maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnification provisions is unlimited. We have not incurred material costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims related to these indemnification provisions. As a result, the estimated fair value of liabilities relating to these provisions is minimal. Accordingly, we have no liabilities recorded for these provisions as of September 30, 2023.

 

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Critical Accounting Estimates

 

Our condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared using generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). In connection with the preparation of the financial statements, we are required to make assumptions and estimates and apply judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses, and the related disclosures. We base our assumptions, estimates, and judgments on historical experience, current trends, and other factors that we believe to be relevant at the time the consolidated financial statements are prepared. On a regular basis, we review the accounting policies, assumptions, estimates, and judgments to ensure that our financial statements are presented fairly and in accordance with GAAP. However, because future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty, actual results could differ from our assumptions and estimates, and such differences could be material.

 

Our significant accounting policies are discussed in “Note 3— Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results.

 

Share-based payments. We measure the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. For employees and directors, including non-employee directors, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date. For non-employees, the fair value of the award is generally re-measured on interim financial reporting dates and vesting dates until the service period is complete. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. We recognize stock-based compensation expense on a graded-vesting basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting tranche of each award. Stock-based compensation expense to employees and all directors is reported within payroll and related expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. Stock-based compensation expense to non-employees is reported within marketing and business development expense in the consolidated statements of operations. 

 

Other derivative financial instrumentsWe classify as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) provide a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in our own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement), provided that such contracts are indexed to our own stock. We classify as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net-cash settle the contract if any event occurs and if that event is outside SGB’s control) or (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement shares (physical settlement or net-cash settlement). SGB assesses classification of common stock purchase warrants and other free-standing derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities or equity is required.

 

Convertible instruments. We bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and accounts for them as free-standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria include circumstances in which (i) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract; (ii) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable GAAP measures with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur; and (iii) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument.

 

We determined that the embedded conversion options that were included in the previously outstanding convertible debentures should be bifurcated from their host and a portion of the proceeds received upon the issuance of the hybrid contract has been allocated to the fair value of the derivative. The derivative was subsequently marked to market at each reporting date based on current fair value, with the changes in fair value reported in results of operations.

 

Revenue recognition. We determine, at contract inception, whether we will transfer control of a promised good or service over time or at a point in time, regardless of the length of contract or other factors. The recognition of revenue aligns with the timing of when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. To achieve this core principle, we apply the following five steps in accordance with its revenue policy:

 

(1) Identify the contract with a customer

 

(2) Identify the performance obligations in the contract

 

(3) Determine the transaction price

 

(4) Allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract

 

(5) Recognize revenue as performance obligations are satisfied

 

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On certain contracts, we apply recognition of revenue over time, which is similar to the method we applied under previous guidance (i.e. percentage of completion). Due to uncertainties inherent in the estimation process, it is possible that estimates of costs to complete a performance obligation will be revised in the near-term. For those performance obligations for which revenue is recognized using a cost-to-cost input method, changes in total estimated costs, and related progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation, are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period in which the revisions to the estimates are made. When the current estimate of total costs for a performance obligation indicate a loss, a provision for the entire estimated loss on the unsatisfied performance obligation is made in the period in which the loss becomes evident.

 

For product or equipment sales, we apply recognition of revenue when the customer obtains control over such goods, which is at a point in time.

 

Goodwill. Goodwill represents the excess of reorganization value over the fair value of identified net assets upon emergence from bankruptcy. In accordance with the accounting guidance on goodwill, we perform our impairment test of goodwill at the reporting unit level each fiscal year, or more frequently if events or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of its reporting unit below its carrying value. Our evaluation of goodwill completed during the year ended December 31, 2022, resulted in no impairment loss. There was no impairment during the September 30, 2023.

 

Intangible assets.  Intangible assets consist of $2,766,000 of proprietary knowledge and technology, which is being amortized over 20 years. In addition, included in intangible assets is $68,344 of trademarks, and $238,422 of website costs that are being amortized over 5 years. We evaluated intangible assets for impairment during the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 and determined that there are no impairment losses.

 

New Accounting Pronouncements

 

See Note 3 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for all recently adopted and new accounting pronouncements.

 

Non-GAAP Financial Information

 

In addition to our results under GAAP, we also present EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for historical periods. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures and have been presented as supplemental measures of financial performance that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP. We calculate EBITDA as net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders before interest expense, income tax benefit (expense), depreciation and amortization. We calculate Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA before certain non-recurring, unusual or non-operational items, such as litigation expense, stock issuance expense and stock compensation expense. We believe that adjusting EBITDA to exclude the effects of these items that are not closely associated with ongoing corporate operations provides management and investors with a meaningful measure that increases period-to -period comparability of our operating performance.

 

We believe the presentation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA is relevant and useful by enhancing the readers’ ability to understand the Company’s operating performance. Our management utilizes EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as a means to measure performance. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are also frequently used by analysts, investors and other interested parties to evaluate companies in our industry. These measures, when used in conjunction with related GAAP financial measures, provide investors with an additional financial analytical framework that may be useful in assessing us and our results of operations.

 

Our measurements of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similar titled measures reported by other companies. Other companies, including other companies in our industry, may not use such measures or may calculate one or more of the measures differently than as presented in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, limiting their usefulness as a comparative measure. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not measurements of financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders, or any other measures of financial performance derived in accordance with GAAP. We do not consider these non-GAAP measures to be substitutes for or superior to the information provided by our GAAP financial results. The non-GAAP information should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes.

 

These measures also should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by the non-recurring, unusual or non-operational items for which these non-GAAP measures make adjustments. Additionally, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not intended to be liquidity measures. 

 

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The following is a reconciliation of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA to the nearest GAAP measure, net loss attributable to common stockholders:

 

   Three Months Ended
September 30,
2023
   Three Months Ended
September 30,
2022
   Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2023
   Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2022
 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders of Safe & Green Holdings Corp.  $(3,608,134)  $(2,453,583)  $(12,683,098)  $(4,586,120)
Addback interest expense   738,649    52,758    1,549,992    174,733 
Addback interest income   (3,186)   (9,756)   (22,002)   (33,518)
Addback depreciation and amortization   1,448,305    145,515    1,747,072    470,425 
EBITDA (non-GAAP)   (1,424,366)   (2,265,066)   (9,408,036)   (3,974,480)
Addback litigation expense       121,830    17,361    466,959 
Addback stock issued for services           484,825     
Addback stock compensation expense       594,694    3,210,631    1,874,857 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)  $(1,424,366)  $(1,548,542)  $(5,695,219)  $(1,632,664)

 

   For the Year Ended December 31,
2022
   For the Year Ended December 31,
2021
 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders of Safe & Green Holdings Corp.  $(8,319,048)  $(10,832,674)
Addback interest expense   336,239    1,254 
Addback interest income   (73,821)   (57,266)
Addback depreciation and amortization   615,191    605,405 
EBITDA (non-GAAP)   (7,441,439)   (10,283,281)
           
Addback loss on asset disposal   25,265    44,081 
Addback litigation expense   664,724    570,934 
Addback stock-based compensation expense   2,798,844    1,647,391 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)  $(3,952,606)  $(8,020,875)

 

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BUSINESS

 

Company Overview

 

We operate in the following four segments: (i) manufacturing and construction services; (ii) medical; (ii) real estate development; and (iv) environmental. The manufacturing and construction segment designs and manufactures modular structures built in our factories using raw materials that are Made-in-America. In the medical segment we have previously used our modular technology to offer prefabricated health facilities for on-site immediate COVID-19 testing and plan to provide our modular technology to offer turnkey solutions to medical testing and treatment and generating revenue from medical testing. Our real estate development segment’s current business focus is primarily on the direct acquisition and indirect investment in properties nationally that will be further developed in the future into green single or multi-family projects. The environmental segment, the newest segment, plans to offer a sustainable medical and waste management solution that will utilize a patented technology to collect waste and treat waste for safe disposal.

 

We are a provider of modular facilities. We currently provide Modules made out of both code-engineered cargo shipping containers and traditional construction using wood and steel framing for use as both permanent or temporary structures for residential housing use and commercial use. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Modules we supplied were primarily for retail, restaurant and military use and were manufactured by third party suppliers using our proprietary technology and design and engineering expertise, which modifies code-engineered cargo shipping containers and purpose-built modules for use for safe and sustainable commercial, industrial and residential building. In March 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic we began increasing our focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities for deployable medical response solutions. In September 2020, we acquired substantially all the assets of Echo DCL, LLC, a Texas limited liability company, except for Echo’s real estate holdings. Echo was a container/modular manufacturer based in Durant, Oklahoma specializing in the design and construction of permanent modular and temporary modular buildings and was one of our key supply chain partners. This acquisition allowed us to have more control over the manufacturing process and, as a result, we have increased our product offerings to add Modules made out of wood, steel and traditional construction materials. 

 

During 2021, through our subsidiary, SG DevCorp we also began to focus on acquiring property to build multi-family housing projects in underserved regions nationally utilizing the manufacturing services of SG Echo. In March 2022, we formed SG Environmental to focus on biomedical waste removal utilizing a patented technology that it licenses to shred and disinfect biomedical waste, rendering the waste disinfected, unrecognizable, and of no greater risk to the public health than residential household waste. In March 2023, we formed Safe and Green Medical Corporation, to focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities with various clinics and labs that cater to the specific needs of local communities. To date, we have not generated revenue from SG DevCorp, SG Environmental or SG Medical.

 

Our Modules

 

Prior to October 2019, our business model was solely a project-based construction model pursuant to which we were responsible for the design and construction of finished products that incorporated our technology primarily to customers in the retail, restaurant, military and education industries throughout the United States. In October 2019, we changed our business model for our residential building construction to a royalty fee model and entered into a five-year exclusive license with CPF GP 2019-1 LLC (“CPF”) under which CPF licensed on an exclusive basis our proprietary technology and intellectual property to develop and commercialize products in the United States (and its territories) for residential use, including, without limitation, single-family residences and multi-family residences, but excluding military housing. On June 15, 2021, we terminated the exclusive license by mutual agreement and ceased our royalty fee model.

 

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, our core customer base was comprised of architects, landowners, builders and developers who used our Modules in commercial and residential structures. Our cargo modified Modules allow for the redesign, repurpose and conversion of heavy-gauge steel cargo shipping containers into Safe & Green™, which are safe green building blocks for commercial, industrial, and residential building construction, rather than consuming new steel and lumber. Our technology and expertise is also used to purpose-build modules, or prefabricated steel modular units customized for use in modular construction, to augment or complement a Safe & Green™ structure.

 

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Modular Construction

 

We produce purpose built pre-fabricated modular structures, for both residential and commercial use, using wood or steel as the base material. We believe that modular construction provides the following benefits:

 

  STRONG     FAST     GREEN
Factory produced modules provide greater quality of construction   Modules can be produced in parallel to the local site and civil work to enhance the date of completion   Modular construction allows for energy savings and more efficient waste management than traditional construction
Modules are inspected by a third-party engineering firm to meet or exceed all applicable building codes   Projects can save up to 50% on speed to market in comparison to traditional construction   Less site disturbance and impact on local traffic
Less weather-related damage to construction materials            

 

Products Produced with Our GreenSteel™ Modular Technology

 

The building products developed with our proprietary technology and design and engineering expertise are generally stronger, more durable, environmentally sensitive, and erected in less time than traditional construction methods. The use of the Safe & Green building structure typically provides between four to six points towards the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (“LEED”) certification levels, including reduced site disturbance, resource reuse, recycled content, innovation in design and use of local and regional materials. Due to our ability to satisfy such requirements, we believe the products produced utilizing our technology and expertise is a leader in environmentally sustainable construction.

 

There are three core product offerings that utilize our GreenSteel technology and engineering expertise. The first product offering involves GreenSteel Modules, which are normally container based, and are the structural core and shell of a Safe & Green building. We procure the containers, engineer required openings with structural steel enforcements, paint the containers and then deliver them on-site, where the customer or a customer’s general contractor will complete the entire finish out and installation. The second product offering involves replicating the process to create the GreenSteel product either container based or conventional volumetric units and, in addition, installing selected materials, finishes and systems (including, but not limited to floors, windows, doors, interior painting, electrical wiring and fixtures, plumbing outlets and bathrooms, roofing system) and delivering Safe & Green pre-fabricated Modules to the site for a third party licensed general contractor to complete the final finish out and installation. Finally, the third product offering is the completely fabricated and finished Safe & Green building (including but not limited to floors, windows, doors, interior painting, electrical wiring and fixtures, plumbing outlets and bathrooms, roofing systems), including erecting the final unit on site and completing any other final steps. The building is ready for occupancy and/or use as soon as installation is completed. Construction administration and/or project management services are typically included in our product offerings. 

 

Other Modular Products

 

We also produce pre-fabricated modular containers, for both residential and commercial use, at SG Echo using wood framing as the base material instead of steel containers. We have found that some clients prefer a mix of wood and steel containers for their projects. Since our acquisition of Echo, approximately 85% of our Module sales have been for wood-based modules.

 

ESR Approval

 

In April 2017, the ICC Evaluation Service, LLC (“ICC-ES”) granted us an Evaluation Service Report (“ESR”) for the Safe & Green structural building materials. We believe we were the first modular building company to receive such certification. Our ESR indicates that the ICC-ES recognizes the suitability and technical capabilities of the Safe & Green structural building materials for use in compliance with the International Building Code and Residential Code, the California Building Code and Residential Code, and the Florida Building Code—Building and Residential. We believe our ESR has expedited reviews and approvals by state and local building departments, helped the Safe & Green concept gain wider acceptance in the construction industry and opened up licensing opportunities internationally We also believe the ESR will make it more difficult for other companies in the industry to compete with us because the quality control and design acceptance criteria are specific to us and our associated facilities.

 

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Our ESR program is based out of our main manufacturing facility in Durant, Oklahoma. The inspection and certification of intermodal containers as detailed in our ESR procedures is not site specific but rather depends on the use of qualified inspectors who are trained to evaluate the cargo worthiness of intermodal containers using established industry standards including AC 462 from the ICC and IICL. Our quality control and inspection processes are reviewed annually by the ICC-ES to verify compliance with the Acceptance Criteria established by the ICC and detailed in ESR 3764. The ESR program is current with these recertifications and the up-to-date ESR is posted to the industry wide approved ESR list on the ICC web-based network. Once a container is inspected a medallion is permanently affixed to the unit to signify compliance with ESR 3764 which is used by local building officials to verify conformance of the container module to the ICC criteria. All Safe and Green Holdings container-based modules have this medallion that validates the quality control process.

 

Target Markets

 

To date, the target markets for the products that utilize our technology and expertise of Modules have been the new construction market in the United States. The Modules that utilize our technology and expertise have a particular application in a number of segments, including:

 

Single-Family and Multi-Family Housing

 

  Restaurants and Quick Service Restaurants

 

  Military
     
  Education/Student Housing
     
  Health Care including medical laboratories

 

  Equipment Enclosures and Stacking Solutions
     
  Office and Commercial
     
  Commercial and residential customers
     
  Athletic facilities and support structures
     
  Administration Facilities

 

In addition, future target markets for expansion of such products and services include data centers, warehouse/public storage, reclamation/drop off centers and medical. 

 

SG Echo

 

In September 2020, we consummated the transaction contemplated by the Asset Purchase Agreement that SG Echo entered into with Echo DCL, LLC pursuant to which SG Echo acquired substantially all the assets of Echo DCL, LLC, a Texas limited liability company, except for Echo’s real estate holdings. Echo was a container/modular manufacturer based in Durant, Oklahoma specializing in the design and construction of permanent modular and temporary modular buildings and was one of our key supply chain partners. Echo catered to the military, education, administration facilities, healthcare, government, commercial and residential customers. This acquisition allowed us to expand our reach for our Modules and offered us an opportunity to vertically integrate a large portion of our cost of goods sold, as well as increase margins, productivity and efficiency in the areas of design, estimating, manufacturing and delivery.

 

SG Echo opened a second factory (the “Waldron Factory”), also in Durant, Oklahoma, in the second half of 2023. The Waldron Factory produces modulars for multiple clients in various industries,

 

Safe & Green Medical

 

In March 2020, we began increasing our focus on providing our Modules as health care facilities for deployable medical response solutions. In May 2020, we entered into a joint development agreement with Grimshaw Design to assist with the deployment of our D-Tec suite of prefabricated health facilities for on-site immediate COVID-19 testing.

 

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On August 27, 2020, we entered into a joint venture agreement (the “Clarity Mobile Venture”) with Clarity Labs Solutions, LLC, a CLIA-certified laboratory based in Miami, Florida (“Clarity Labs”). Under the Clarity Mobile Venture, we, along with Clarity Labs agreed to jointly market, sell, and distribute certain lab testing products and services On November 12, 2020, Clarity Mobile Venture entered into a contract with the City of Los Angeles for the operations of a COVID-19 PCR Test Laboratory at Los Angeles International Airport (“LAX”) to provide a full-service modular COVID-19 laboratory and testing facility onsite at Los Angeles International Airport. This facility conducted PCR tests with results available within three hours for passengers and airline crew, and no later than 24 hours for LAX airport employees. In September 2022, we terminated the Clarity Mobile Venture by mutual agreement. For the year-ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we recognized approximately $11,600,000 and $31,500,000, respectively, in revenue related to activities through these joint ventures, which is included in medical revenue on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

 

As an expansion to our prior modular COVID-19 offerings, we plan to provide our modular technology to offer turnkey solutions to deliver medical testing and treatment and generate revenues from medical testing, In furtherance of this objective, in March 2023, we formed Safe and Green Medical Corporation. To date, we have not generated revenue from SG Medical.

 

SG Development

 

During February 2021, we formed SG DevCorp for the purpose of real property development utilizing our technologies and our manufacturing facility. SG DevCorp’s current business focus is primarily on the direct acquisition and indirect investment in properties nationally that will be further developed in the future into green single or multi-family projects. To date, SG DevCorp has not generated any revenue and its activities have consisted solely of the acquisition of three properties and an investment in two entities that have acquired two properties to be further developed; however it has not yet commenced any development activities. SG DevCorp intends to construct many of its planned developments using Modules built by SG Echo. In addition to these development projects, it intends, subject to its ability to raise sufficient capital, to build additional, strategically placed manufacturing facilities that will be sold or leased to third parties as well as leased to SG Echo. SG DevCorp intends to build manufacturing sites for lease to SG Echo near its project sites in order to take advantage of cost savings for transportation of modules. SG DevCorp’s business model is flexible and it anticipates developing properties on its own and also through joint ventures in which SG DevCorp partners with third-party equity investors or other developers.

 

SG DevCorp has entered into, and may continue in the future to enter into, joint ventures (including limited liability companies or partnerships) through which it would own an indirect economic interest of less than 100% of the property owned directly by such joint ventures. The decision to either develop a property on its own or through a joint venture is based on a variety of factors and considerations, including: (i) the economic and tax terms required by the seller of land; (ii) SG DevCorp’s desire to diversify its portfolio of communities by market, submarket and product type; (iii) SG DevCorp’s desire at times to preserve its capital resources to maintain liquidity or balance sheet strength; and (iv) SG DevCorp’s projections, in some circumstances, that it will achieve higher returns on its invested capital or reduce its risk if a joint venture vehicle is used. Each joint venture agreement is individually negotiated, and SG DevCorp’s ability to operate and/or dispose of a community in its sole discretion may be limited to varying degrees depending on the terms of the joint venture agreement.

 

In December 2022, we announced our plan to separate our company and SG DevCorp into two separate publicly traded companies. To implement the Separation, on September 27, 2023 , we, effected a pro rata distribution to our stockholders of approximately 30% of the outstanding shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock. In connection with the Distribution, each of our stockholders received 0.930886 shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock for every five (5) shares of our Common Stock held as of the close of business on September 8, 2023, the record date for the Distribution, as well as a cash payment in lieu of any fractional shares. Immediately after the Distribution, SG DevCorp was no longer a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours and we held approximately 70% of SG DevCorp’s issued and outstanding securities. On September 28, 2023, SG DevCorp’s common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGD.”

 

In connection with the Separation and Distribution, we entered into a separation and distribution agreement and several other agreements with SG DevCorp. These agreements provide for the allocation between us and SG DevCorp of the assets, employees, liabilities and obligations (including, among others, investments, property, employee benefits and tax-related assets and liabilities) of us and our subsidiaries attributable to periods prior to, at and after the Separation and will govern the relationship between us and SG DevCorp subsequent to the completion of the Separation. In addition to the separation and distribution agreement, the other principal agreements entered into with us included a tax matters agreement and a shared services agreement.

 

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Current Projects/Development Sites

 

In January 2024, SG DevCorp announced that it would strategically look to monetize it real estate holdings throughout 2024 by identifying markets where SG DevCorp’s land may have increased in value, as demonstrated by third-party appraisals.

 

Lago Vista. On May 10, 2021, SG DevCorp acquired a 50+ acre site in Lago Vista, Texas for $3,500,000, paid in cash, pursuant to an Unimproved Property Contract, dated February 25, 2021, with Northport Harbor LLC. The acquired parcel sits on Lake Travis on the Colorado River in central Texas. SG DevCorp acquired the property and were able to successfully get a PDD approved for 174 condominium units with an allowance for 30% short-term rental. As a result of obtaining the site approval and market conditions, the property’s value increased significantly from the time of purchase. Accordingly, we determined to list the undeveloped property for sale.

 

On July 14, 2021, SG DevCorp issued a Real Estate Lien Note, dated July 14, 2021, in the principal amount of $2,000,000 (the “Short Term Note”), secured by a Deed of Trust, dated July 14, 2021, on the Lake Travis project site in Lago Vista, Texas and a related Assignment of Leases and Rents, dated July 8, 2021, for net loan proceeds of $1,945,234 after fees. The Short-Term Note had a term of one (1) year, provided for payments of interest only at a rate of twelve percent (12%) per annum and could be prepaid without penalty commencing nine (9) months after its issuance date. If the Short-Term Note was prepaid prior to nine (9) months after its issuance date, a 0.5% prepayment penalty would be due. This Short-Term Note was initially extended until January 14, 2023 and was further extended until February 1, 2024. In addition, on September 8, 2022, we issued a Second Lien Note in the principal amount of $500,000 (the “Second Short-Term Note”) also secured by a Deed of Trust on the Lake Travis project site in Lago Vista, Texas. The Second Short-Term Note provided for payments of interest only at a rate of twelve percent (12%) per annum and originally matured on January 14, 2023, which maturity date was extended until February 1, 2024.

 

On March 31, 2023, LV Peninsula Holding LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of SG DevCorp (“LV Holding”), pursuant to a Loan Agreement, dated March 30, 2023 (the “Loan Agreement”), issued a promissory note, in the principal amount of $5,000,000 (the “LV Note”), secured by a Deed of Trust and Security Agreement, dated March 30, 2023 (the “Deed of Trust”) on SG DevCorp’s Lake Travis project site in Lago Vista, Texas, a related Assignment of Contract Rights, dated March 30, 2023 (“Assignment of Rights”), on SG DevCorp’s project site in Lago Vista, Texas and McLean site in Durant, Oklahoma and a Mortgage, dated March 30, 2023 (“Mortgage”), on SG DevCorp’s site in Durant, Oklahoma.

 

The proceeds of the LV Note were used to pay off the Short-Term Note and the Second Short-Term Note. The LV Note requires monthly installments of interest only, is due on April 1, 2024 and bears interest at the prime rate as published in the Wall Street Journal (currently 8.0%) plus five and 50/100 percent (5.50%), currently equaling 13.5%; provided that in no event will the interest rate be less than a floor rate of 13.5%. The LV Holding obligations under the LV Note have been guaranteed by SG DevCorp pursuant to a Guaranty, dated March 30, 2023 (the “Guaranty”), and may be prepaid by LV Holding at any time without interest or penalty.

 

The net loan proceeds were approximately $1,337,000, after loan commission fees of $250,000, broker fees of $125,000, the escrow of a 12-month $675,000 interest reserve, other closing fees and the repayment of the Short-Term Note and Second Short-Term Note.

 

On November 28, 2023, LV Holding entered into a Contribution Agreement with Preserve Acquisitions, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“Preserve”),  to form either a Delaware or Texas limited liability company or limited partnership (the “Joint Venture”) for the purpose of owning, holding for investment and ultimately selling a residential housing development (the “LV Project”) to be developed by the parties on approximately 59.3712 acres located in Lago Vista, Texas currently owned by LV Holding (the “Lago Vista Property”) upon the terms and conditions set forth in the Contribution Agreement and in the operating agreement of the Joint Venture to be negotiated between the parties (the “JV Agreement”). The Contribution Agreement provides that the parties will negotiate the JV Agreement within five months of the November 28, 2023 execution date of the Contribution Agreement. The Contribution Agreement further provides that LV Holding will contribute the Lago Vista Property to the Joint Venture as a capital contribution to be valued at $11.5 million in the JV Agreement.

 

Preserve will lead the development process and, after the completion of a feasibility period, will be required to submit permits for the first phase of the LV Project within 11 months from the execution of the Contribution Agreement. In addition, the Contribution Agreement provides that LV Holding must remove, pay and/or satisfy prior to or at Closing (as defined below) any monetary liens (as defined in the Contribution Agreement) on the Lago Vista Property.

 

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The closing for the formation of the Joint Venture (the “Closing”) is to be held on the date which is 30 days after the expiration of the feasibility period subject to fulfillment of the following conditions: (a) an affiliate of Preserve, LV Holding or its affiliate and a third party equity investor, if applicable, have executed and delivered the JV Agreement in form approved by Preserve and LV Holding, which terms must be consistent with waterfall provisions set forth in the Contribution Agreement; (b) the Joint Venture having secured a legally binding and unconditional commitment for construction financing and capital commitments sufficient for the LV Project from third parties (debt and equity); and (c) the Title Agent being unconditionally committed to issue the Owner’s Title Policy to the Joint Venture.

 

At Closing, LV Holding must pay a 5% brokerage commission based upon the $11.5 million property value. Until the Closing or the earlier termination of the Contribution Agreement, LV Holding has agreed to not convey or encumber all or any portion of the Lago Vista Property, or any interest therein, or enter into any agreement granting to any person any right with respect to the Lago Vista Property (or any portion thereof), provided, however, prior to Closing, LV Holding may solicit, discuss, and negotiate purchase offers so long as it notifies all potential buyers that the Lago Vista Property is under contract pursuant to the Contribution Agreement.

 

Norman Berry Village. On May 31, 2021, SG DevCorp acquired a 50% membership interest for $600,000 in a limited liability company, Norman Berry II Owners, LLC (“NB Owners”), that is building affordable housing in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area to be known as “Norman Berry Village.” SG DevCorp has partnered with CMC Development Group, a New York City-based real estate development firm (“CMC”) with national expertise providing design build services. CMC owns the other 50% membership interest in NB Owners. The NB Owners’ operating agreement provides that NB Owners will initially have two managers, one designated by CMC (the “CMC Manager”) and one designated by us. Pursuant to the operating agreement, the CMC Manager will manage the day-to-day business and affairs of NB Owners and all non-routine decisions requires the approval of members owning a majority of the outstanding membership interests. The operating agreement also provides that any fee earned by CMC in connection with the acquisition and development of the Norman Berry Village and related real property will be split 75% to CMC and 25% to SG DevCorp. SG DevCorp has no obligation under the operating agreement to make any additional capital contributions to NB Owners. In addition, neither SG DevCorp nor CMC may voluntarily make any additional capital contributions to NB Owners. In accordance with the operating agreement, we are entitled to a preferred return equal to 10% per annum on our unreturned capital contributions which return will (i) accrue from the date on which our capital contributions were actually contributed to NB Owners until the date such capital contributions are returned to SG DevCorp, and (ii) compound annually. SG DevCorp expects the project to develop 125,000 square feet of space and build approximately 132 multi-family rental apartments in two buildings. We expect the project to commence in the first quarter of 2024, subject to available funding, and to be completed within three years of commencement. The estimated development costs for this project are approximately $35.0 million. NB Owners recently received approval from the city of Eastpoint to purchase the right of way approval to begin developing the Norman Berry Village.

 

Cumberland Inlet. On June 24, 2021, SG DevCorp as a member, entered into an Operating Agreement, with Jacoby Development, Inc., a Georgia corporation (“JDI”), as manager, dated June 24, 2021 (the “Operating Agreement”), for JDI-Cumberland Inlet, LLC, a Georgia limited liability company (“JDI-Cumberland”), pursuant to which SG DevCorp acquired a 10% non-dilutable equity interest (“LLC Interest”) in JDI-Cumberland for $3.0 million. JDI-Cumberland has purchased a 1,298 acre waterfront parcel in downtown historic St. Mary’s, Georgia and expects to develop approximately 352 acres thereof (the “Cumberland Project”). SG DevCorp, in conjunction with JDI, expect to develop a mixed-use destination community. The location will serve as home to 3,500 units made up of single family, multi-family, vacation and hospitality use, as well as a full-service marina, village, and upscale Eco-Tourism park inclusive of camping, yurts, cabins and cottages. JDI-Cumberland recently received all approvals to build out the marina portion of the project.

 

SG DevCorp has no obligation under the Operating Agreement to make any additional capital contributions to JDI-Cumberland. The Operating Agreement provides JDI with the right, at its option, to purchase the LLC Interest from SG DevCorp on or before June 24, 2023 for $3.0 million, plus an amount equal to an annual internal rate of return (IRR) on such funds of forty (40%) percent (i.e., $1.2 million annualized). After June 24, 2023, the Operating Agreement provides JDI with the right, at its option, to purchase the LLC Interest from us for $3.0 million, plus an amount equal to an IRR of thirty-two and one-half (32.5%) percent (i.e., $975,000 annualized). The Operating Agreement also provides that if JDI receives a good faith, bona fide written offer from an unaffiliated third party to purchase all or any portion of the Project, JDI shall first offer the Project to us at the same price and upon substantially the same terms as are contained in the offer. The Operating Agreement contains certain protective provisions that prevent JDI, as manager, from determining to, or taking, certain significant actions without our consent. SG Echo, a subsidiary of SG Holdings, entered into a Fabrication and Building Services Agreement (“Building Services Agreement”) with JDI-Cumberland to design, fabricate and install various improvements for the Project using modular structures, pursuant to budgets prepared by SG Echo submitted for approval to JDI-Cumberland, including a marina, town center, apartments and single family units, townhomes, commercial, retail and lodging buildings/structures, eco-tourism park, camping yurts, cabins and cottages. The Building Services Agreement has an initial term of three years, with two-year automatic renewal provisions. During the term of the Building Services Agreement, SG Echo will have a right of first refusal with respect to each phase of the construction of the project buildings. If SG Echo’s quote for a given phase is no more than five percent more than the average of all bona fide, arm’s length bids that JDI-Cumberland obtains from reputable, unaffiliated builders, the phase will be awarded to SG Echo. In the event that SG Echo’s quote for a given phase is more than five percent more than the average of all bona fide arm’s length bids JDI-Cumberland obtains from reputable, unaffiliated builders, SG Echo will have the right to match such best bona fide, arm’s length offer and secure the work.

 

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SG DevCorp anticipates that the first phase of development activities at this site will be the construction of 165 multifamily units over the course of 12-18 months, which activities are anticipated to commence during the third quarter of 2024, with an estimated cost of $38.0 million. SG DevCorp also anticipates that the units will be built with modules supplied by SG Echo. Current plans are to sell this development three (3) years after development.

 

St Mary’s Site. On August 18, 2022, SG DevCorp purchased, for $296,870 approximately 27 acres of land adjacent to the Cumberland Inlet Project from the Camden County Joint Development Authority (JDA). to build a 120,000 square foot state of the art manufacturing facility to be occupied by SG Echo. In connection with the purchase of the St. Mary’s Site, SG DevCorp entered into a promissory note in the amount of $148,300. This note had a maturity date of September 1, 2023, subject to SG DevCorp’s right to extend for 6 months upon payments of a fee equal to 1% of the principal balance of the note and provides for payments of interest only at a rate of nine and three quarters percent (9.75%) per annum. SG DevCorp elected to exercise this right to extend the maturity date. This note could be prepaid without penalty, provided, however, if the lender has not received six months of interest, SG DevCorp must pay the lender an amount equivalent to the months of interest necessary to complete six months of interest. In addition, at the time of payment in full of the note, SG DevCorp must pay the lender an amount equivalent to half of one percent (0.50%) of the original loan amount. To secure payment in full of the note, the note is secured by a security deed in the property with power of the lender to sell the property. SG DevCorp intends to pay off the note by the end of March 2024.

 

On January 31, 2024, SG DevCorp entered into an Agreement of Sale (the “Agreement of Sale”) with Pigmental, LLC (“Pigmental”) to sell the St. Mary’s Site to Pigmental for $1.35 million, payable $900,000 in cash and 450,000 by the issuance of a promissory note to SG DevCorp. The promissory note will bear interest at 10% per annum, provide for monthly interest only payments of $3,750 commencing May 1, 2024, mature on April 30, 2025, and be secured by a mortgage on the St Mary’s Industrial Site. SG DevCorp expects the transaction will close on or about April 1, 2024. The Agreement of Sale provides that the closing of the sale by SG DevCorp to Pigmental of the St Mary’s Site will occur no later than April 30, 2024, with time being of the essence. 

 

McLean Mixed Use Site. On November 10, 2021, SG DevCorp entered into a Purchase Agreement (“Purchase Agreement) with the Durant Industrial Authority to acquire 100% ownership of approximately 114 mixed-use acres in Durant, Oklahoma for $868,000. SG DevCorp anticipates building approximately 800 residential units and up to 1.1 million square feet of industrial manufacturing space on the mixed-use property. The closing on the 114 mixed-use acres occurred in the first quarter of 2022. SG DevCorp plans to build and SG Echo will occupy a 120,000 square foot state of the art manufacturing facility. The property is zoned for an additional 1.0 million square feet of industrial space. SG DevCorp is currently marketing the additional space to potential tenants. It is anticipated that SG Echo will provide modular construction services to SG DevCorp in connection with the residential project described above pursuant to the Master Purchase Agreement dated December 17, 2023 between SG DevCorp and SG Echo. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions–- Other Related Party Transactions”

 

SG DevCorp anticipates that the first phase of development activities at this site will be the construction of 100 multifamily units over the course of 12-18 months, which activities are anticipated to commence during the first quarter of 2024, with an estimated cost of $17.0. SG DevCorp also anticipates that the units will be built with modules supplied by SG Echo. Current plans are to sell this development three (3) years after development.

 

XENE Acquisition

 

On February 7, 2024, SG DevCorp closed its acquisition of Majestic World Holdings, a real estate technology firm and owner of the Xene AI Software platform (“XENE Platform”). The purchase price for the acquisition consists of an aggregate of $500,000 in cash to be paid over five quarters and 500,000 shares of SG DevCorp restricted stock. The XENE Platform, powered by advanced AI technology, has the goal of creating a decentralized real estate marketplace, creating an all-in-one solution that brings banks, institutions, home builders, clients, agents, vendors, gig workers, and insurers into a seamlessly integrated and structured AI-driven environment.

 

SG Environmental

 

In March 2022, we entered into a ten-year exclusive distribution agreement with Sanitec Industries LLC (“Sanitec”), a sustainable waste management company that is the global patent holder for the Sanitec Microwave Healthcare Waste Disinfection System™ for the State of New York with a right to expand to other states. The Sanitec Microwave Disinfection Unit is designed to shred and disinfect biomedical waste, rendering the waste disinfected, unrecognizable, and of no greater risk to the public health than residential household waste. Sanitec Industries’ existing customers are primarily centered in healthcare facilities nationwide, ranging from large hospital systems to single practitioner doctors’ offices. In connection with our entry into the Sanitec distribution agreement we formed a new subsidiary, SG Environmental Solutions Corp. SG Environmental plans to offer biomedical waste removal utilizing the patented technology that it licenses from Sanitec to shred and disinfect biomedical waste for safe disposal. To date, we have not generated revenue from SG Environmental.

 

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Our Competitive Strengths

 

Although the construction industry is highly competitive, we are committed to educating the real estate community on the benefits of our technology and expertise and positioning the products that utilize our technology and expertise as complementary to the strategy of developers, rather than as competition. We may compete for building opportunities with regional, national and international builders that possess greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do, and competition within the general construction industry may increase if there is future consolidation in the land development and construction industry or from new building technologies that could arise. Within the modular building space, we compete against a small number of companies providing modular-building services. The principal competitive factors in our construction business include, but are not limited to, the availability of building materials; technical product knowledge and expertise; previous experience in modular construction; consulting or other service capabilities; pricing of products; and the marketability of our ESR within the structural building space.

 

We believe we can distinguish ourselves from our competitors on the basis of our ESR, quality, cost and construction time savings when utilizing our technology and expertise. Our proprietary construction for our cargo-based containers method is typically less expensive than traditional construction methods, particularly in urban locations and multi-story projects, and construction time is also generally reduced by using our construction method, reducing both construction and soft costs substantially. Safe & Green are designed to be hurricane-, tornado- and earthquake-resistant and able to withstand harsh climate conditions. The flexibility and the stack-ability of the Modules allows architects, developers and owners to design Modules to meet their specific needs. In addition, our management team has a breadth of knowledge in the modular building industry with a combined 130 years of experience. Our experience in a wide range of construction applications, including office, enclosures, residential, commercial, quick service restaurants, experiential and restaurant applications, gives us an advantage over our competition through the use of market-based prototypes. With the acquisition of Echo, we have been able to vertically integrate our manufacturing process and reduce some of our cost of goods sold, productivity and efficiency.

 

Our Customers

 

We market our construction products to a broad customer base, comprised primarily of contractors, home builders, building owners and other resellers across the continental United States. In addition, as stated above, we have supplied and offer our Modules to the medical community. Safe & Green customers come from all walks in the economy and include government agencies, private developers, the U.S. Military, the Native American Community, the QSR operators, and a host of entrepreneurs looking to launch ideas and technology. At September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, 87% and 80%, respectively, of our gross accounts receivable were due from three and three customers. Revenue relating to one and two customers represented approximately 100% and 93% of our total revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Revenue relating to one and one customers represented approximately 97% and 88% of our total revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Revenue relating to three and one customers represented approximately 65% and 80% of the Company’s total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. 

 

Our Suppliers and Partners

 

Although the primary use of shipping containers is for transportation, when constructing Safe & Green, we use standard materials made in America to modify the container shell structure and finish out the modules. In addition, we use the same standard construction materials to construct and finish out the wood base modules produced at SG Echo. We utilize the same suppliers and materials used by conventional construction. Materials such as windows, doors, insulation mechanical systems, electrical systems and other such supplies are all off-the-shelf materials and equipment commonly available and used in the industry. We believe we have access to alternative suppliers, with limited disruption to the business, should circumstances change with our existing suppliers.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We operate under our United States registered trademarks “Safe & Green” and “GreenSteel” and our trademarked “SG” logo.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

The Company is subject to certain claims and lawsuits arising in the normal course of business. For information regarding legal proceedings, see "Note 16 - Commitments and Contingencies" of our condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

Properties

 

Headquarters and Other Office Space. We lease office space in Miami, Florida for our corporate headquarters. We also lease office space in Bedford, Texas of approximately 1,738 square feet to support SG Echo's procurement and accounting functions.

 

Development Sites. See “- SG Development - Current Projects/Development Sites.”

 

Manufacturing Facilities. SG Echo operates and leases two manufacturing facilities, one totals approximately 61,000 square feet and the other totals approximately 58,000 square feet of manufacturing space. Both spaces are located in Durant, Oklahoma.

 

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Government Regulation and Approval

 

The design and construction of buildings is controlled at the project level, with local and state municipalities having jurisdiction in most cases. All buildings, conventionally built or modularly built, are subject to published building codes and criteria that must be achieved during the architectural and engineering phase in order to be approved for construction. There are no specific regulations that impact our design and construction technology. While much of the regulation in our industry occurs at the project level, we are subject to various federal, state and local government regulations applicable to the business in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including laws and regulations relating to our relationships with our employees, public health and safety, workplace safety, transportation, zoning and fire codes. Also, to the extent we expand into medical waste removal and medical testing we will be subject to various federal, state and local government regulations. We strive to operate in accordance with applicable laws, codes and regulations. We believe we are in compliance in all material respects with existing applicable environmental laws and regulations and, in addition, that our employment, workplace health and workplace safety practices comply with related regulations. 

 

General Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on December 29, 1993 under the name PC411, INC. On January 12, 1999, we changed our name to CDSI Holdings, Inc. On November 4, 2011, CDSI Merger Sub, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary, completed a reverse merger with and into SG Building Blocks, Inc., with SG Building surviving the reverse merger as our wholly owned subsidiary. Also on November 4, 2011, we changed our name to SG Blocks, Inc. On December 16, 2022, we changed our name to Safe & Green Holdings Corp. In addition, on December 16, 2022, our then wholly-owned subsidiary, SGB Development Corp. changed its name to Safe and Green Development Corporation. Prior to our emergence from bankruptcy in June 2016, our Common Stock was quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board. Our Common Stock is currently listed for trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SGBX.”

 

Our principal offices are located at 990 Biscayne Blvd., #501, Office 12, Miami, Florida 33132. Our website address is www.safeandgreeenholdings.com. The information contained in, and that can be accessed through our website, is not incorporated into and is not a part of this prospectus. We make available on our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are filed with the SEC. The following Corporate Governance documents are also posted on our website: Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and the Charters for the following Committees of the Board of Directors: Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Our phone number is (646) 240-4235. Our filings may also be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street NE, Room 1580 Washington, DC 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

 

Our Emergence from Bankruptcy

 

On October 15, 2015, the Company and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Debtors”), filed voluntary petitions for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (the “Bankruptcy Court”) under the caption In re SG Blocks, Inc. et al., Case No. 15-12790. On February 29, 2016, the Debtors filed a Disclosure Statement (the “Disclosure Statement”), attaching a Plan of Reorganization (the “Reorganization Plan”), along with a motion seeking approval of the Disclosure Statement by the Bankruptcy Court. On June 30, 2016 (the “Effective Date”), the Reorganization Plan became effective and the Debtors emerged from bankruptcy.

 

Prior to the Effective Date, the Company was authorized to issue: (i) 300,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 (the “Former Common Stock”) of which 42,918,927 shares were issued and outstanding as of June 29, 2016; and (ii) 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 (the “Former Preferred Stock”), none of which were issued and outstanding prior to the Effective Date.

 

On the Effective Date, and pursuant to the terms of the Reorganization Plan, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement, dated June 30, 2016, pursuant to which the Company sold for a subscription price of $2.0 million a 12% Original Issue Discount Senior Secured Convertible Debenture to Hillair Capital Investments L.P. (“HCI”) in the principal amount of $2.5 million, with a maturity date of June 30, 2018 (the “Exit Facility”). 

 

On the Effective Date, all previously issued and outstanding shares of the Former Common Stock were deemed discharged, cancelled and extinguished, and, pursuant to the Reorganization Plan, the Company issued, in the aggregate, 8,195 shares (as adjusted to effect a 1-for-20 reverse stock split) of common stock, par value $0.01 (the “New Common Stock”), to the holders of Former Common Stock. Further, under the Reorganization Plan, upon the Effective Date, certain members of the Company’s management were entitled to receive options (the “Management Options”) to acquire approximately 10,919 shares (as adjusted to effect a 1-for-20 reverse stock split), of the Company’s New Common Stock, on a fully diluted basis.

 

On the Effective Date, pursuant to the terms of the Plan and the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the Company filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware a Certificate of Designations of Convertible Preferred Stock, designating 1,801,670 shares (as adjusted to effect a 1-for-3 reverse stock split) of preferred stock, par value $1.00, all of which were issued upon our emergence from bankruptcy. Prior to our public offering that we consummated in June 2017, all outstanding shares of our preferred stock, were converted into 90,084 shares of Common Stock. No preferred stock currently remains outstanding.

 

Human Capital

 

We believe that our success depends upon our ability to attract, develop and retain key personnel. As of December 31, 2023, we directly employed twelve full-time employees and two part-time employees and engaged outside professional firms and subcontractors to deliver projects to customers, and SG Echo directly employed eighty full-time employees.

 

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MANAGEMENT

 

Below is certain information regarding our directors and executive officers. 

 

Name of Director or Executive Officer  Ages  Position  Served as an Officer and/or
Director Since
Paul M. Galvin  60  Chairman of the Board and
Chief Executive Officer
  November 2011
Patricia Kaelin  60  Chief Financial Officer  May 2023
Christopher Melton (2)(5)(7)    51  Director  November 2011
David Villarreal  71  Director  May 2021
Shafron E. Hawkins (1)(3)(6)    48  Director  December 2022
Thomas Meharey (4)   42  Director  October 2023
Jill Anderson (1) (3)    49  Director  October 2023

 

(1)Audit Committee Member.
(2)Audit Committee Chairman.
(3)Compensation Committee Member.
(4)Compensation Committee Chair.
(5)Nominating. Environmental, Social and Governance Committee Member
(6)Nominating. Environmental, Social and Governance Committee Chair
(7)Lead Independent Director.

 

Paul M. Galvin was appointed as a director and the Company’s Chief Executive Officer upon consummation of the reverse merger among CDSI Holdings Inc., CDSI Merger Sub, Inc., the Company, and certain stockholders of the Company on November 4, 2011 (the “Merger”). He was appointed as Interim Chief Financial Officer on May 18, 2022. Mr. Galvin is a founder of Safe & Green, LLC, the predecessor entity of the Company. Mr. Galvin has served as a director of SG DevCorp since February 2021 and currently serves as the Chairman of the Board of SG DevCorp. He has served as the Chief Executive Officer of the Company since April 2009 and as a director of the Company since January 2007. Mr. Galvin has been a managing member of TAG Partners, LLC (“TAG”), an investment partnership formed for the purpose of investing in the Company, since October 2007. Mr. Galvin brings over 30 years of experience developing and managing real estate, including residential condominiums, luxury sales and market rate and affordable rental projects. Prior to his involvement in real estate, he founded a non-profit organization that focused on public health, housing and child survival, where he served for over a decade in a leadership position. During that period, Mr. Galvin designed, developed and managed emergency food and shelter programs through New York City’s Human Resources Administration and other federal and state entities. From November 2005 to June 2007, Mr. Galvin was Chief Operating Officer of a subsidiary of Yucaipa Investments, where he worked with religious institutions that needed to monetize underperforming assets. While there, he designed and managed systems that produced highest and best use analyses for hundreds of religious assets and used them to acquire and re-develop properties across the U.S. Mr. Galvin holds a Bachelor of Science in Accounting from LeMoyne College and a Master’s Degree in Social Policy from Fordham University. He was formerly an adjunct professor at Fordham University’s Graduate School of Welfare. Mr. Galvin previously served for 10 years on the Sisters of Charity Healthcare System Advisory Board and six years on the board of SentiCare, Inc. In 2011, the Council of Churches of New York recognized Mr. Galvin with an Outstanding Business Leadership Award.

 

We selected Mr. Galvin to serve on our Board because he brings extensive knowledge of the real estate and finance industries and managements experience. Mr. Galvin’s pertinent experience, qualifications, attributes and skills include his expertise in real estate development and management and finance. 

 

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Patricia Kaelin was appointed as our Chief Financial Officer on May 1, 2023. Ms. Kaelin is a member of the AICPA with more than 25 years of financial leadership, strategic planning, and public company experience. She has served as Chief Financial Officer for public and privately held companies and has extensive experience in the construction, real estate, manufacturing and healthcare industries. She has expertise in mergers and acquisitions and corporate restructuring, as well as private and public equity and debt financing. Ms. Kaelin served as Chief Financial Officer of Buddies Brand, a privately held West Coast consumer packaged goods (CPG) company, from October 2021 through May 2023. Prior to that, she served as Chief Financial Officer of 1933 Industries, Inc., a publicly traded CPG company based in Vancouver, British Columbia, with operations in the United States from March 2020 to October 2021. Ms. Kaelin also served as Chief Financial Officer, Business Operations, at Clifton Larson Allen (“CLA”), one of the largest CPA and consulting firms in the United States from March 2019 to March 2020 and as Consulting Chief Financial Officer for multiple companies and on a fractional basis while at CLA and TGG Accounting, a provider of outsourced accounting and business advisory services for small to mid-sized businesses across various industries with offices throughout the Southwest United States, where she was employed beginning October 2017 until March 2019. She began her career at BDO USA, LLP, spending seven years in public accounting where she earned her CPA certificate. Ms. Kaelin earned her bachelor’s degree in Business Administration with a concentration in Accounting from California State University, Fullerton.

 

Christopher Melton was appointed as a director of the Company upon consummation of the Merger on November 4, 2011. Mr. Villarreal was appointed as a director of SG DevCorp effective April 11, 2023. Mr. Melton is a licensed real estate salesperson in the State of South Carolina and until June 2019 was a principal of Callegro Investments, LLC, a specialist land investor investing in the southeastern U.S., which he founded 2012. Since June 2019 he has served as a specialist Land Advisor with SVN. Mr. Melton also serves on several public and private boards, including SRM Entertainment, Inc. (formerly Jupiter Wellness, Inc.) since August 2019 and has served since February 2018 as chief investment officer and analyst at TNT Capital Advisors, a capital advisory firm based in Florida. He also served as a sales agent as MSK Commercial Services, a commercial real estate company, from February 2018 to June 2019. From 2000 to 2008, Mr. Melton was a Portfolio Manager for Kingdon Capital Management (“Kingdon”) in New York City, where he ran an $800 million book in media, telecom and Japanese investment. Mr. Melton opened Kingdon’s office in Japan, where he set up a Japanese research company. From 1997 to 2000, Mr. Melton served as a Vice President at JPMorgan Investment Management as an equity research analyst, where he helped manage $500 million in REIT funds under management. Mr. Melton was a Senior Real Estate Equity Analyst at RREEF Funds in Chicago from 1995 to 1997. RREEF Funds is the real estate investment management business of Deutsche Bank’s Asset Management division. Mr. Melton earned a Bachelor of Arts in Political Economy of Industrial Societies from the University of California, Berkeley in 1995. Mr. Melton earned Certification from University of California, Los Angeles’s Anderson Director Education Program in 2014.

 

We selected Mr. Melton to serve on our Board because he brings extensive knowledge of finance and the real estate industry. Mr. Melton’s pertinent experience, qualifications, attributes and skills include financial literacy and expertise, managerial experience and the knowledge and experience he has attained through his real estate investment and development activities.

 

David Villarreal was appointed as a director of the Company on May 28, 2021. Mr. Villarreal has served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of SG DevCorp since February 3, 2023. Mr. Villarreal was appointed as a director of SG DevCorp effective April 11, 2023. Mr. Villarreal’s career spans over 40 years in various management, business and leadership capacities, beginning in 1977 when he served as Deputy Mayor and Senior Deputy Economic Development Advisor, under Mayor Tom Bradley in the City of Los Angeles. From August 2014 until March 2023, Mr. Villarreal served as the Chief Administrative Officer of Affinity Partnerships, LLC, a Costco national mortgage services platform provider, with annual closed loan production of $8+ billion through a network of ten national mortgage lenders. From March 2011 to August 2014, he served as the President -Corporate Business Development, of Prime Source Mortgage, Inc. From September 2008 to September 2012, he served as a Consultant to the International Brotherhood of Teamsters.

 

We selected Mr. Villarreal to serve on our Board because he brings extensive knowledge of mortgage and real estate industry. Mr. Villarreal’s pertinent experience, qualifications, attributes and skills include financial literacy and expertise, managerial experience and the knowledge and experience he has attained through his real estate investment activities.

 

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Shafron Hawkins was appointed as a director of the Company in December of 2022. Shafron Hawkins’ career spans the industries of financial services, government and nonprofits. Hawkins started his career working for TD Waterhouse Securities in its active investors division before moving to Credit Suisse First Boston. In June 2002, Hawkins founded Hawkins Capital Group, where he served as Principal while helping raise acquisition capital for small companies. In 2016, Hawkins became a legislative fellow in the U.S. House of Representatives, advising a Way and Means Committee member and helping push forward the Simplifying America’s Tax System (SATS) plan. Soon after, Hawkins served as a U.S. Senate Tax and Trade Counsel where he worked to expand the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act to include the Opportunity Zones provision. Hawkins also served as Majority Staff Director for the Senate Finance Subcommittee on Energy, Natural Resources, and Infrastructure, having previously served as Majority Staff Director for the Senate Finance Subcommittee on Fiscal Responsibility and Economic Growth. Upon leaving Capitol Hill, Hawkins founded the Opportunity Funds Association, an organization that helps advocate for Opportunity Zones and drive investments into underserved areas. In 2022, Hawkins worked with Congress to introduce the bi-partisan, bi-cameral Opportunity Zones Transparency Extension and Improvement Act which achieves the OFA member policy goals of increased investment and greater transparency in Opportunity Zones.

 

Mr. Hawkins earned his undergraduate degree in economics from The Ohio State University, his MBA from Columbia Business School as a Credit Suisse First Boston Fellow, and his JD from the Moritz College of Law at OSU. He is currently an adjunct professor at the Cleveland State University College of Law.

 

We selected Mr. Hawkins to serve on our Board because he brings extensive knowledge with respect to the financial services, government and nonprofit industries. Mr. Hawkins’s pertinent experience, qualifications, attributes and skills include financial literacy and expertise, managerial experience and the knowledge and experience he has attained through his financial services, government and nonprofit activities.

 

Jill Anderson was appointed as a director of the Company in August 2023. Ms. Anderson has over twenty years of in-house and law firm experience counseling life sciences and healthcare companies on a variety of business issues and transactions, including corporate, regulatory, data privacy and security, employment, marketing and sales, real estate and litigation matters. Since August 2020, Ms. Anderson has served as Chief Legal Officer and Privacy Officer of miR Scientific, a precision healthcare company committed to transforming cancer management globally by developing non-invasive tests for the detection and risk classification of cancers. From December 2006 to August 2020, Ms. Anderson was a partner in the Healthcare and Privacy & Cybersecurity departments at the law firm of Moses & Singer LLP in New York City. Before that, Ms. Anderson held legal roles at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Mass General Brigham (formerly Partners Healthcare System). Ms. Anderson also serves on the Board of Directors of Fight Cancer Global, a nonprofit organization dedicated to creating patient-centric solutions which unite all constituents to end the isolation for cancer patients globally. Ms. Anderson successfully completed training at the 2023 Program on Corporate Compliance and Enforcement (PCCE) at NYU School of Law in Board Governance, Board Effectiveness, Risk Management, ESG and DEI. Ms. Anderson earned her J.D. at Widener University School of Law and holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Pre-Medicine from Rutgers University.

 

We selected Ms. Anderson to serve on our Board because she brings extensive knowledge with respect to the healthcare industry. Ms. Anderson’s pertinent experience, qualifications, attributes and skills include scientific expertise, managerial experience and the knowledge and experience she has attained through her healthcare experience.

 

Thomas Meharey was appointed as director of the Company in October 2023. Mr. Meharey currently serves as a Vice President and board member for kathy ireland Worldwide, a global lifestyle company (“kiWW”). Mr. Meharey was appointed Vice President of kiWW in 2007 and as a board member of kiWW in 2017. During his time with kiWW, Mr. Meharey launched the MIVI Millennial brand for men and women alongside global lifestyle designer Kathy Ireland. From 2003 to 2007, Mr. Meharey served as the Director of kathy ireland Weddings and Resorts, where he managed a portfolio of properties in excess of $40 million dollars. In 2004, Mr. Meharey founded a general contracting business in Hawaii, where he managed projects ranging from modest homes to multi-million dollar estates. Mr. Meharey served our country as a marine from 1999-2003.

 

We selected Mr. Meharey to serve on our Board due to his leadership skills and experience, his expertise in scaling businesses and his knowledge of the luxury brand, advertising, real estate and construction industries.

 

Board Leadership Structure

 

The Board recognizes that one of its key responsibilities is to evaluate and determine its optimal leadership structure to provide independent oversight of management. Our Board is currently led by a Chairman of the Board who also serves as our Chief Executive Officer. The Board understands that the right Board leadership structure may vary depending on the circumstances, and our independent directors periodically assess these roles and the Board leadership to ensure the leadership structure best serves the interests of the Company and stockholders.

 

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Mr. Galvin currently holds the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer roles. Mr. Melton currently serves as the Lead Independent Director appointed by the majority of the Board. Mr. Villarreal served as our Lead Independent Director until February 2023 when he was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of SG DevCorp. and was determined to be no longer independent.

 

The responsibilities of the Lead Independent Director include, among others: (i) serving as primary intermediary between non-employee directors and management; (ii) approving the agenda and meeting schedules for the Board; (iii) advising the Chairman of the Board as to the quality, quantity and timeliness of the information submitted by management to directors; (iv) recommending director candidates and selections for the membership and chairman position for each committee of the Board; (v) calling meetings of independent directors; and (vi) serving as liaison for consultation and communication with stockholders.

 

We believe the current leadership structure, with combined Chairman and Chief Executive Officer roles and a Lead Independent Director, best serves the Company and its stockholders at this time. Mr. Galvin possesses detailed and in-depth knowledge of the Company and the industry and the issues, opportunities and challenges we face, and is best positioned to ensure the most critical business issues are brought for consideration by the Board. In addition, having one leader serving as both the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer provides decisive, consistent and effective leadership, as well as clear accountability to our stockholders and customers. This enhances our ability to communicate our message and strategy clearly and consistently to our stockholders, employees, customers and suppliers, particularly during times of turbulent economic and industry conditions. The Board believes the appointment of a strong Lead Independent Director and the use of regular executive sessions of the non-management directors, along with a majority the Board being comprised of independent directors, allow it to maintain effective oversight of management. We believe that the combination of the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer roles is appropriate in the current circumstances and, based on the relevant facts and circumstances, separation of these offices would not serve our best interests and the best interests of our stockholders at this time. 

 

Director Independence

 

Nasdaq Listing Rule 5605 requires a majority of a listed company’s board to be comprised of independent directors. In addition, the Nasdaq Listing Rules require that, subject to specified exceptions, each member of a listed company’s audit and compensation committees be independent under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Members of the Audit Committee and Compensation Committee must also satisfy the independence criteria set forth in Rules 10A-3 and 10C-1 under the Exchange Act, respectively. Under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5605(a)(2), a director will only qualify as an “independent director” if, in the opinion of the Board, that person does not have a relationship that would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities of a director. In order to be considered independent for purposes of Exchange Act Rule 10A-3, an Audit Committee member may not, other than in his or her capacity as a member of the Audit Committee, the Board or any other committee of the Board, accept, directly or indirectly, any consulting, advisory or other compensatory fee from the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or otherwise be affiliated with the Company or any of its subsidiaries. In order for Compensation Committee members to be considered independent for purposes of Exchange Act Rule 10C-1, the Board must consider all factors specifically relevant to determining whether a director has a relationship to the Company that is material to that director’s ability to be independent from management in connection with the duties of a Compensation Committee member, including, but not limited to: (1) the source of compensation of the director, including any consulting advisory or other compensatory fee paid by the Company to the director; and (2) whether the director is affiliated with the Company or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates.

 

The Board has reviewed the materiality of any relationship that each of our directors has with the Company and has determined that each of Messrs. Hawkins, Meharey, Melton and Ms. Anderson, is “independent” in accordance with the Nasdaq Listing Rules. Messrs. Galvin and Villarreal are not considered “independent” due to their executive positions. As such independent directors comprised a majority of our Board as of December 31, 2023. The members of our Audit, Compensation, and Nominating, Environmental, Social and Governance Committees are fully independent. We are actively seeking an additional independent director.

 

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Board and Committee Responsibilities

 

Generally

 

The Board is the ultimate decision-making body of the Company, except with respect to those matters to be decided by the stockholders. It selects the Chief Executive Officer and other members of the senior management team, which is charged with the conduct of the Company’s day-to-day business. The Board acts as an advisor and counselor to senior management and ultimately monitors its performance. The function of the Board to monitor the performance of senior management is facilitated by the presence of non-employee directors who have substantive knowledge of the Company’s business.

 

Our Board has established a separate standing Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating, Environmental, Social and Governance Committee. Each of the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating, Environmental, Social and Governance Committee operates pursuant to a written charter, a copy of which may be viewed on the Company’s website at https ://www.safeandgreenholdings.com under the “Investors — Corporate Governance” tab.

 

Audit Committee

 

The members of our Audit Committee are Mr. Melton, who serves as chairperson, Mr. Hawkins and Ms. Anderson. The Audit Committee Charter requires that the Audit Committee consist of at least three members of the Board, each of whom is required to be independent as defined by Nasdaq and SEC rules. The Board has determined that each member of the Audit Committee is independent, as defined by Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act and Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5605(a)(2). The Board has also determined that Mr. Melton is an “audit committee financial expert,” as defined in Item 407(d)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act.

 

The Audit Committee is directly responsible for the appointment, compensation, retention and oversight of our independent registered public accounting firm. Functions of the Audit Committee include, but are not limited to, reviewing the results and scope of the audit performed, and the financial recommendations provided by, our independent registered public accounting firm and coordinating the Board’s oversight of our internal financing and accounting processes.

 

All audit services to be provided to the Company by our independent public accounting firm are pre-approved by the Audit Committee prior to the initiation of such services (except for items exempt from pre-approval requirements under applicable laws and rules). The Audit Committee approved all services provided by our independent public accounting firm to us during 2022.

 

Compensation Committee

 

The members of our Compensation Committee are Mr. Meharey, who serves as chairperson, Ms. Anderson and Mr. Hawkins. The Compensation Committee Charter requires that the Compensation Committee consist of at least two members of the Board, each of whom is required to be independent as defined by Nasdaq rules. The Board has determined that each member of the Compensation Committee is independent, as defined in Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5605(a)(2).

 

Functions of the Compensation Committee, include, but are not limited to reviewing and approving, or recommending the Board approve, compensation arrangements for our executive officers, including salary and payments under the Company’s equity-based plans; reviewing compensation for non-employee directors and recommending changes to the Board; and administering our stock compensation plans. Our principal executive officer annually reviews the performance of each of the named executive officers and other officers and makes recommendations regarding the compensation of the named executive officers and other officers and managers of the company, while the Compensation Committee reviews the performance of our principal executive officer. The conclusions and recommendations resulting from our principal executive officer’s review are then presented to the Compensation Committee for its consideration and approval. The Compensation Committee can exercise its discretion in modifying any of our principal executive officer’s recommendations. The Compensation Committee may delegate its authority to a subcommittee of its members.

 

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In performing its functions, the Compensation Committee may retain or obtain the advice of such compensation consultants, legal counsel and other advisors. In March 2022, the Compensation Committee engaged Haigh & Company as its independent compensation consultant. With the assistance of Haigh & Company, the Compensation Committee developed and implemented an organizational framework covering salary, annual bonus and equity ownership, with the goal of attracting and retaining talented individuals who are critical to the Company’s long-term success and aligning pay with performance. The Compensation Committee assessed the independence of Haigh & Company pursuant to SEC rules and in accordance with Nasdaq listing standards, noting that Haigh & Company (i) did not have any relationships with the Company, our executive officers or our Committee members that would impair its independence, and (ii) does not provide any services to the Company other than advice to the Compensation Committee regarding executive officer and director compensation, and concluded that Haigh & Company is free from conflicts of interest and is independent.

 

Nominating, Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Committee

 

The Nominating, Environmental, Social and Governance Committee is currently comprised of, Mr. Hawkins, who serves as chairperson, and Mr. Melton. The Nominating, Environmental, Social and Governance Committee Charter requires that the Nominating, Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Committee consist of at least two members of the Board, each of whom is required to be independent as defined by Nasdaq rules. The Board has determined that each member of the Nominating, Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Committee is independent, as defined in Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5605(a)(2). Specific responsibilities of the Nominating, Environmental, Social and Governance Committee include: (i) considering and recommending to the Board, candidates for election to the Board; (ii) considering recommendations and proposals submitted by stockholders in respect of Board nominees, establishing policies in respect of such recommendations and proposals (including stockholder communications with the board of directors), and recommending any action to the Board in respect of such stockholder recommendations and proposals; (iii) identifying, evaluating and recommending to the board of directors, candidates to serve on committees of the Board; (iv) assessing the performance of the Board; (v) reviewing the Company’s sustainability and societal impact and (vi) reviewing risk governance structure, risk assessment and risk management practices and guidelines, policies and processes for risk assessment and risk management, including cyber security measures.

 

Role of the Board in Risk Oversight

 

Our executive officers are responsible for the day-to-day management of risks the Company faces, while our Board has an advisory role in the Company’s risk management process, as a whole and at the committee level, and, in particular, the Board is responsible for monitoring and assessing strategic and operational risk exposures, including cybersecurity risk. The Board and committees rely on the representations of management, the external audit of our financial and operating results, our systems of internal control and our historic practices when assessing the Company’s risks. The Audit Committee oversees management of financial risk exposures and the steps management has taken to monitor and control these exposures, and additionally provides oversight of internal controls. The Compensation Committee, in conjunction with the Audit Committee, assesses and monitors whether any of the Company’s compensation policies and programs have the potential to encourage excessive risk-taking. While each committee is responsible for evaluating certain risks and overseeing the management of such risks, the entire Board is regularly informed about such risks by committee reports, as well as advice and counsel from expert advisors.

 

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EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

We are a “smaller reporting company” and the following compensation disclosure is intended to comply with the requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies. Although the rules allow us to provide less detail about its executive compensation program, the Compensation Committee is committed to providing the information necessary to help stockholders understand its executive compensation-related decisions. Accordingly, this section includes supplemental narratives that describe the 2023 executive compensation program for our named executive officers.

 

Our executive officers named in the Summary Compensation Table below are referred to herein as the “named executive officers.” These named executive officers are:

 

Paul M. Galvin, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and Interim Chief Financial Officer

 

Tricia Kaelin, Chief Financial Officer and Controller

 

William Rogers, Former Chief Operating Officer

 

Summary Compensation Table

 

The following table sets forth all compensation awarded to, paid to or earned by the following named executive officers for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022: 

 

Name and Principal Position  Year   Salary
($)
   Bonus
($)
   Stock
Awards
($)(1)
   All Other
Compensation
($)(2)
   Total
($)
 
Paul M. Galvin,   2023   $

572,917

(3)  $35,100 (4)   $127,260   $11,250   $

746,527

 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer   2022   $450,000   $100,000   $1,183,000   $40,657   $1,723,657 
                               
Patricia Kaelin,   2023    $200,000 (4)  $(4)  $50,172   $1,000   $251,172 
Chief Financial Officer (5)   2022   $                 
                               
William Rogers(6)   2023   $300,000             80,500   $380,500 
Former Chief Operating Officer   2022   $300,000   $60,000   $   $26,210   $386,210 

 

(1) This column indicates the aggregate grant date fair value, as determined in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation (“FASB ASC Topic 718”).

(2) For 2023, all other compensation consisted of: Mr. Galvin — $1,650 is cell phone and $9,600 auto allowance; Ms. Kaelin — $1,000 cell phone; and Mr. Rogers — $1,500 cell phone, $4,000 401K match and $75,000 was accrued pursuant to the Release Agreement. See “ —Employment Agreements.”

(3)  During 2023, Mr. Galvin earned salary compensation of $572,917, for his duties as Chairman and Chief Executive. Mr. Galvin voluntarily deferred $62,500 of his salary compensation during 2023. 
(4) The Compensation Committee has recommended that the Board approve 2023 bonuses of $350,000 for Mr. Galvin and $100,000 for Ms. Kaelin to be paid in cash, equity or a combination of cash and equity. Such amounts have not been included in the above table.

(5)Ms. Kaelin was appointed Chief Financial Officer of the Company on May 1, 2023.

(6)Mr. Rogers’ employment with us terminated on December 31, 2023.

 

Narrative Disclosure to Summary Compensation Table

 

Following is a brief summary of each core element of the compensation program for our named executive officers. 

 

Base Salary. We provide competitive base salaries that are intended to attract and retain key executive talent. Base salary levels depend on the executive’s position, responsibilities, experience, market factors, recruitment and retention factors, internal equity factors and our overall compensation philosophy.

 

Effective January 1, 2017, we entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Galvin. Mr. Galvin’s employment agreement originally provided for base compensation in the amount of $240,000 per year. On July 24, 2018, the Compensation Committee increased Mr. Galvin’s annual base salary to $370,000, retroactive to January 1, 2018. Such increase was based on a competitive market assessment provided by Haigh & Company, the Compensation Committee’s independent compensation consultant. On December 1, 2019, the annual base salary for Mr. Galvin was decreased from $370,000 to $180,000. On April 24, 2020, the annual base salary for Mr. Galvin was increased from $180,000 to $400,000. On July 5, 2022, the annual base salary for Mr. Galvin was increased to $500,000. On September 19, 2023, Mr. Galvin’s employment agreement was amended to increase Mr. Galvin’s annual base salary to $750,000.

 

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On May 1, 2023, we engaged Patricia Kaelin to serve as our Chief Financial Officer with an annual base salary of $250,000, which was increased to $300,000 on July 26, 2023. The Compensation Committee has recommended that the Board approve an increase to Ms. Kaelin’s salary to $350,000 in 2024.

 

On December 7, 2020, the Company appointed William Rogers to serve as the Company’s Chief Operations Officer with an annual base salary of $300,000 per year. Mr. Rogers’ employment with us terminated on December 31, 2023. See “-Employment Agreements.”

 

Bonus Payments. Bonuses were accrued in 2022 for Mr. Galvin for $50,000 and Mr. Rogers for $60,000. Mr. Galvin was paid $50,000 of his 2022 bonus during 2022. On September 26, 2023 the Compensation Committee approved a cash bonus of $35,100 be paid to Mr. Galvin for his service to the Company in connection with the Separation and Distribution. In addition, the Compensation Committee has recommended that the Board approve 2023 bonuses of $350,000 for Mr. Galvin and $100,000 for Ms. Kaelin to be paid in cash, equity or a combination of cash and equity.

 

Equity Awards. During 2022 and 2023, we granted restricted stock unit awards to our key employees, including our named executive officers, as the long-term incentive component of our compensation program.

 

On November 3, 2022, the Compensation Committee granted Mr. Galvin an award of 250,000 restricted stock units (RSUs) under our stock incentive plan, vesting quarterly over two years. On April 4, 2023, Mr. Galvin was granted an award of 126,000 RSUs. We anticipate that the Company will, in 2024, issue to Mr. Galvin RSUs representing a contingent right to receive such number of shares of Common Stock as will result in him owning a total of 9.9% of our outstanding shares of our Common Stock. 

 

On May 10, 2023, Ms. Kaelin was granted an award of 60,000 RSUs which vested upon issuance. The Compensation Committee has recommended that the Board approve an award of 300,000 RSUs to Ms. Kaelin in 2024.

 

On May 4, 2023, the Board took action to vest in full 1,627,773 RSUs granted under the Company’s stock incentive plan, which included 476,049 RSUs granted to Mr. Galvin and 86,960 RSUs granted to Mr. Rogers. The Company expects to reimburse each of Mr. Galvin and Mr. Rogers for a portion of the taxes paid by them in respect of the accelerated vesting.

 

Employment Agreements

 

Paul M. Galvin. We employ Mr. Galvin, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board, pursuant to an employment agreement, effective January 1, 2017. The employment agreement provided for an initial term of two years, with automatic renewals unless earlier terminated pursuant to the provisions of the employment agreement. The employment agreement originally provided for base compensation in the amount of $240,000 per year, which was increased to $370,000 in early 2019, but subsequently reduced to $180,000 in December 2019. The employment agreement also provides for incentive compensation at the discretion of our Board. The agreement provides for the payment of severance compensation in an amount equal to one year of his base annual salary, if his employment is terminated by the Company other than for “Cause,” as defined therein. In April 2020, we entered into an amendment to Mr. Galvin’s employment agreement employment to December 31, 2021 and increased his annual base salary to $400,000, provide for a performance bonus structure for a bonus of up to 50% of base salary upon the Company’s achievement of $2,000,000 EBITDA and additional performance bonus payments for the achievement of EBITDA in excess of $2,000,000 based on a percentage of the incremental increase in EBITDA (ranging from 10% of the incremental increase in EBITDA if the Company achieves over $2,000,000 and up to $7,000,000 in EBITDA, 8% of the incremental increase in EBITDA if the Company achieves over $7,000,000 and up to $12,000,000 in EBITDA and 3% of the incremental increase in EBITDA over $12,000,000), provide for a profits-based additional bonus of up to $250,000 in certain limited circumstances, and provide for one (1) year severance, plus a pro-rated amount of any unpaid bonus earned by him during the year as verified by the Company’s principal financial officer, if Mr. Galvin is terminated without cause. At the Company’s option, up to fifty (50%) percent of the EBITDA performance bonuses may be paid in restricted stock units if then available for grant under the Company’s stock incentive plan. In July 2022, we entered into an amendment to Mr. Galvin’s employment agreement to increase his annual base salary to $500,000 and in September 2023 we entered into an amendment to Mr. Galvin’s employment agreement to increase his annual base salary to $750,000. All other terms of the employment agreement remain in full force and effect.

 

Patricia Kaelin. On May 1, 2023, we entered into an employment agreement with Patricia Kaelin (the “Kaelin Employment Agreement”) to employ Ms. Kaelin in such capacity for an initial term of two (2) years, which Kaelin Employment Agreement provides for an annual base salary of $250,000, which was increased to $300,000 on July 26, 2023, a discretionary bonus of up to 20% of her base salary upon achievement of objectives as may be determined by the Board of Directors and severance in the event of a termination without cause on or after September 30, 2023 in amount equal to one year’s annual base salary and benefits. The Kaelin Employment Agreement also provides for the grant to Ms. Kaelin of a restricted stock grant under the stock incentive plan, as amended and as available for grant, of 60,000 shares of Common Stock, vesting quarterly on a pro-rata basis over the next eighteen (18) months of continuous service. On May 10, 2023, Ms. Kaelin was granted an award of 60,000 RSUs which were fully vested upon issuance.

 

William Rogers. On September 27, 2021, we entered into an executive employment agreement with William Rogers (the “Rogers Employment Agreement”) to employ Mr. Rogers as the Company’s Chief Operating Officer for an initial term of two (2) years, which provides for an annual base salary of $300,000, a discretionary bonus of up to 25% of his base salary upon achievement of objectives as may be determined by the Company’s board of directors, term life insurance coverage equal to two (2) times annual base salary, three weeks’ vacation and severance in the event of a termination without cause in amount equal to one year’s annual base salary and benefits. Pursuant to the terms of the Rogers Employment Agreement, October 1, 2021, Mr. Rogers was issued a restricted stock grant under our stock incentive plan of 37,500 shares of the Company’s Common Stock, vesting upon issuance, and a restricted stock grant under the stock incentive plan of 200,000 shares of our Common Stock, vesting monthly over two years.

 

Mr. Rogers is subject to a one-year post-termination non-compete and non-solicit of employees and clients. He is also bound by confidentiality provisions.

 

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Mr. Rogers employment with us terminated on December 31, 2023. On October 20, 2023, we entered into a mutual settlement and release agreement with Mr. Rogers (the “Release Agreement”) pursuant to which (i) we agreed to pay Mr. Rogers a settlement payment equal to $75,000 for his lost vacation, life insurance and related costs through December 31, 2023; (ii) we and Mr. Rogers agreed to extend the Rogers Employment Agreement through December 31, 2023, at which point the Rogers Employment Agreement will end as a mutual termination; (iii) we and Mr. Rogers agreed that Mr. Rogers’ title under the Rogers Employment Agreement will change from COO to Project Development Advisor and he will report to David Villarreal for the remaining term of the Rogers Employment Agreement and all other terms of the Rogers Employment Agreement will remain unchanged, including Mr. Roger’s right to receive RSUs and right to accrue additional vacation days; (iv) Safe and Green Development Corporation and Mr. Rogers will enter into a consulting agreement that will commence on January 1, 2024, which consulting agreement was entered into on October 20, 2023, and was effective January 1, 2024.

 

 Retirement, Health, Welfare, and Additional Benefits

 

Our executive officers are eligible to participate in our employee benefit plans and programs, including medical benefits, flexible spending accounts, short and long-term disability and life insurance, to the same extent as our other full-time employees, subject to the terms and eligibility requirements of those plans. Our executive officers are also eligible to participate in a tax-qualified 401(k) defined contribution plan to the same extent as our other full-time employees. Currently, we do match contributions made by participants in the 401(k) plan or make other contributions to participant accounts.

 

Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year-End

 

The following table sets forth information regarding the outstanding option awards held by the named executive officers as of December 31, 2023:

 

      Options Awards         
Name  Grant Date  Number of
Securities
Underlying
Unexercised
Options (#)
Exercisable
   Number of
Securities
Underlying
Unexercised
Options (#)
Unexercisable
    Option
Exercise
Price
($)
   
   Option
Expiration
Date
 
Paul M. Galvin  3/30/2018   4,108(5)      $92.20    3/30/2028 
   3/10/2017   5,298(1)      $100.00    3/10/2027 
   3/10/2017   3,973(1)      $120.00    3/10/2027 
   1/30/2017   4,841(2)      $60.00    1/30/2027 
   11/01/2016   4,914(3)      $60.00    11/01/2026 
   11/01/2016   667(4)      $60.00    11/01/2026 
Patricia Kaelin                   
William Rogers                   

 

(1) In connection with a public offering by the Company, completed in June 2017, Mr. Galvin was granted performance-based option awards, to vest upon the completion of certain conditions. A portion of the shares were granted at an exercise price to equal the price per share at which the public purchased shares in the offering ($100.00 per share), while the remainder were granted at an exercise price equal to 120% of such price per share ($120.00 per share). In September 2017, the Compensation Committee determined that Mr. Galvin met his performance conditions and the option awards vested in full. 
(2) Of these options, 990 vested on the grant date, while the remaining 3,851 vested in equal quarterly installments on the last day of each fiscal quarter following the date of grant over a two-year period. All options vested in full as of December 31, 2018.
(3) Of these options, 2,184 vested on the grant date, while the remainder vested in three equal installments of 910 on the three anniversaries following the grant date. Such options vested in full as of November 1, 2019.
(4) These options vested in equal quarterly installments on the last day of each fiscal quarter following the date of grant and vested in full as of September 30, 2017. 
(5) These options vested in equal quarterly installments over a two-year period, beginning March 31, 2018, and vested in full as of December 31, 2019.

 

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DIRECTOR COMPENSATION

 

Compensation Program

 

Our director compensation program is designed to attract and retain highly qualified directors and align their interests with those of our stockholders. We compensate directors who are not employed by the Company with a combination of cash and equity awards. Mr. Galvin did not receive any compensation for serving on our Board in 2023.

 

The Compensation Committee reviews the director compensation program and recommends proposed changes for approval by the Board. As part of this review, the Compensation Committee considers the significant amount of time expended, and the skill level required, by each director not employed by the Company in fulfilling his or her duties on the Board, each director’s role and involvement on the Board and its committees and the market compensation practices and levels of our peer companies. 

 

Our Compensation Committee periodically reviews the compensation of our non-employee directors and makes recommendations to our Board for adjustments. As part of this review, the Compensation Committee may solicit the input of outside compensation consultants. For 2023, our director compensation program consisted of the following components:

 

Cash Fees

 

The following table sets forth the cash fee schedule for compensating non-employee directors from January 2023 through December 2023:

 

   1/23 – 12/23 
Annual Board Retainer  $80,000 
Lead Independent Director  $12,500 
Audit Committee Chair  $12,500 
Compensation Committee Chair  $12,500 
Nominating, Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Committee Chair  $7,500 

 

The above cash fees were to be paid quarterly in four equal installments, to each person serving as a non-employee director at the time when such payment is made. Non-employee directors may choose to receive the annual Board retainer as equity in the form of restricted stock units or stock options. Directors receive no additional per-meeting fee for Board or committee meeting attendance. All director fees owed for 2023 will be paid in the first quarter of 2024 in restricted stock units or stock options, at each director’s election.

 

Equity Awards

 

In addition, our director compensation program for 2023 provided that each director was to receive, pursuant to our stock incentive plan, an equity grant of restricted stock units with a grant date value of approximately $80,000 that would vest quarterly over two years, subject to such director’s continued service as a director. During 2023, each of Messrs. Blumenfeld, Melton, and Hawkins and Ms. Cormier-May received a grant of 37,500 RSUs, with a grant date value of approximately $37,875, vesting quarterly over two years. Mr. Villareal, who also serves as the Chief Executive Officer of Safe and Green Development Corporation, received a grant of 118,166 RSUs, with a grant date value of $119,348, vesting quarterly over two years. See “- Other Agreements” for a description of Ms. Villaverde’s 2023 equity grant. All director equity awards owed for 2023 will be paid in the first quarter 2024 in restricted stock units or stock options, at each director’s election.

 

On May 4, 2023, the Board took action to vest in full 1,627,773 RSUs granted under the Company’s stock incentive plan, 140,105 RSUs granted to Mr. Villarreal, 59,439 RSUs granted to Mr. Melton, 37,500 RSUs granted to Ms. May-Cormier, 37,500 RSUs granted to Mr. Hawkins, and 68,814 RSUs granted to Mr. Blumenfeld. The Company expects to reimburse each of such directors for a portion of the taxes paid by them in respect of the accelerated vesting.

 

Additional Compensation

 

In connection with special committees that the Board may form from time to time in connection with various transactions or undertakings, the Board may award additional compensation to the directors, in its discretion, for membership on such special committees. The Board may, from time to time, grant additional merit-based cash or equity compensation to non-employee directors for extraordinary service. All directors are reimbursed for expenses incurred in connection with each Board and committee meetings attended.

 

Other Agreements

 

On February 3, 2023, Safe and Green Development Corporation entered into an executive employment agreement with David Villarreal to employ Mr. Villarreal as its President and Chief Executive Officer for an initial term of two (2) years, which provides for an annual base salary of $300,000, a discretionary bonus of up to 25% of his base salary upon achievement of objectives as may be determined by the SG DevCorp board of directors and severance in the event of a termination without cause in amount equal to one year’s annual base salary and benefits. Pursuant to the terms of the employment agreement, subject to SG DevCorp’s board of directors approval, SG DevCorp agreed to issue to Mr. Villarreal a restricted stock grant of under SG DevCorp’s 2023 Incentive Compensation Plan for six hundred fifty thousand (650,000) shares of SG DevCorp’s common stock, vesting fifty percent (50%) upon issuance, with the balance vesting quarterly on a pro-rata basis over the next eighteen (18) months of continuous service. Mr. Villarreal is subject to a one-year post-termination non-compete and non-solicit of employees and clients. He is also bound by confidentiality provisions.

 

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On December 20, 2023, Vanessa Villaverde notified the Company of her decision to resign, effective December 31, 2023, from her position as a member of the Board and the Nominating, Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Committee. The Company entered into a Mutual Separation and Release Agreement (the “Separation Agreement”) with Ms. Villaverde. The Separation Agreement provides that the Company shall, on or before December 31, 2023, pay to Ms. Villaverde all outstanding board fees. The Agreement also contains a non-disparagement obligation on both parties and a release of claims. Pursuant to the Separation Agreement, the Company paid Ms. Villaverde outstanding board fess of $20,000 and granted her 42,553 RSUs with a grant date value of approximately $20,034, which were fully vested upon issuance.

 

Director Compensation Table

 

The following table sets forth information regarding all forms of compensation that were both earned by and paid to our non-employee directors during the year ended December 31, 2023. The compensation arrangements for Mr. Galvin is disclosed in the Summary Compensation Table set forth in the “Executive Compensation” section of this Annual Report. Mr. Galvin did not receive compensation for his services as a director during the year ended December 31, 2023. 

 

Name  Fees Earned or
Paid in Cash
($)
   Stock
Awards (1)
   All Other
Compensation
($)
   Total (2) 
Yaniv Blumenfeld (3)  $40,000   $37,875   $         —   $77,875 
Thomas Meharey (4)                
Christopher Melton  $45,000   $37,875   $   $82,875 
Vanessa Villaverde (5)  $20,000   $20,034       $40,034 
Jill Anderson (6)                
Elizabeth Cormier-May (7)  $41,250    37,875       $79,125 
David Villarreal (8)  $42,500   $119,348   $   $161,848 
Shafron Hawkins  $41,250   $37,875   $   $79,125 

 

 

(1) This column indicates the aggregate grant date fair value, as determined in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation (“FASB ASC Topic 718”), of the RSUs granted on April 4, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, none of the directors held any options or unvested restricted stock units.

(2)

Amounts to be paid in equity in 2024 related to 2023 compensation as described in “ – Compensation Program” are not included in this table.

(3) Mr. Blumenfeld resigned as a Board member effective as of April 28, 2023.
(4) Mr. Meharey joined the Board in October 2023.
(5) Ms. Villaverde joined the Board in August 2023 and resigned as a Board member effective as of December 31, 2023.

(6)

(7)

Ms. Anderson joined the Board in August 2023.

Ms. Cormier-May resigned as a Board member on September 22, 2023.

(8) This table does not include amounts paid to Mr. Villarreal in 2023 by SG DevCorp for his services as Chief Executive Officer of SG DevCorp.

 

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CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

Related Party Transactions

 

The following is a summary of transactions since January 1, 2022 to which we have been a party and in which any of our executive officers, directors or beneficial holders of more than five percent of our capital stock had or will have a direct or indirect material interest, other than compensation arrangements and equity awards granted to our executive officers and directors during 2022 and 2023 that are described under the sections of this proxy statement entitled “Executive Compensation” and “Director Compensation”. 

 

On January 21, 2020, CPF GP 2019-1 LLC (“CPF GP”) issued to the Company a promissory note in the principal amount of $400,000 (the “Company Note”) and issued to Paul Galvin, the Company’s Chairman and CEO, a promissory note in the principal amount of $100,000 (the “Galvin Note”). The transaction closed on January 22, 2019, on which date the Company loaned CPF GP 2019-1 LLC $400,000 and Mr. Galvin personally loaned CPF GP $100,000 on behalf of the Company.

 

The Company Note and Galvin Note were issued pursuant to the Loan Agreement and Promissory Note, dated October 3, 2019, as amended on October 15, 2019 and November 7, 2019 by and between the CPF GP and the Company, and bear interest at five percent (5%) per annum, payable, together with the unpaid principal amount of the promissory notes, on the earlier of the July 31, 2023 maturity date or upon the liquidation, redemption sale or issuance of a dividend upon the LLC interests in CPF MF 2019-1 LLC, a Texas limited liability company of which CPF GP is the general partner. The terms of the Galvin Note, however, provide that all interest payments due to Mr. Galvin under the Galvin Note shall be paid directly to, and for the benefit of, the Company. In connection with the issuance of the Company Note and the Galvin Note, CPF GP, the Company and Mr. Galvin entered into a Security Agreement, dated January 21, 2020, pursuant to which CPF GP granted a security interest in its LLC interests in CPF MF 2019-1 LLC to the Company and Mr. Galvin to secure its obligations thereunder. Subsequent to the year ended December 31, 2021, the Galvin Note was assigned to the Company and the principal amount of $100,000 was returned to Mr. Galvin. The Company has a promissory note in the principal amount of $100,000 and the assignment of the promissory note occurred in January 2022. 

 

On December 14, 2023, Mr. Galvin, loaned $75,000 to the Company. The loan was evidenced by a promissory note. The loan will be interest free (subject, however to any interest which may be imputed under applicable income tax laws) and is due and payable by December 14, 2024.

 

Loan Transactions with SG DevCorp

 

During 2021, SG DevCorp received $4,200,000 from due to affiliates. This amount was advanced to SG DevCorp by us, was evidenced by a promissory note, non-interest bearing and was due on demand. Included in this amount, were payroll and general and administrative expenses which were paid by us and allocated to SG DevCorp.

 

On August 9, 2023, we and SG DevCorp entered into a Note Cancellation Agreement, effective as of July 1, 2023, pursuant to which we cancelled and forgave the remaining $4,000,000 balance then due on that certain promissory note, dated December 19, 2021, made by SG DevCorp in favor of us in the original principal amount of $4,200,000.

 

In addition, as of September 30, 2023, $1,876,298 is due from us for advances made by the SG DevCorp. SG DevCorp intends to formalize the amount due into a promissory note. 

 

The Spin-Off of SG DevCorp

 

 In connection with the Separation and Distribution, we entered into a separation and distribution agreement and several other agreements with SG DevCorp to effect the Separation and provide a framework for our relationship with SG DevCorp after the Separation. These agreements provide for the allocation between us, on the one hand, and SG DevCorp, on the other hand, of the assets, liabilities and obligations associated with the spin-off business, on the one hand, and our other current businesses, on the other hand, and will govern the relationship between our company, on the one hand, and SG DevCorp, on the other hand, subsequent to the Separation and Distribution (including with respect to transition services, employee matters and tax matters).

 

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Separation and Distribution Agreement

 

The separation and distribution agreement governs the overall terms of the Separation and Distribution and specified those conditions that must be satisfied or waived by us prior to the completion of the Separation. We and SG DevCorp each agreed to indemnify the other and each of the other’s current and former directors, officers, and employees, and each of the heirs, executors, administrators, successors, and assigns of any of them, against certain liabilities incurred in connection with the Separation and Distribution and our and SG DevCorp’s respective businesses. The amount of either SG DevCor’'s or our indemnification obligations will be reduced by any net insurance proceeds the party being indemnified receives. The separation and distribution agreement also establishes procedures for handling claims subject to indemnification and related matters.

 

Tax Matters Agreement

 

In connection with the Separation, we and SG DevCorp entered into a tax matters agreement that contains certain tax matters arrangements and governs the parties’ respective rights, responsibilities, and obligations with respect to taxes, including taxes arising in the ordinary course of business and taxes incurred as a result of the Separation and the Distribution. The tax matters arrangement also sets forth the respective obligations of the parties with respect to the filing of tax returns, the administration of tax contests, and assistance and cooperation on tax matters.

 

The tax matters agreement governs the rights and obligations that we and SG DevCorp have after the Separation with respect to taxes for both pre- and post-closing periods. Under the tax matters arrangement, SG DevCorp will be responsible for (i) any of SG DevCor’'s taxes for all periods prior to and after the Distribution and (ii) any taxes of the SG Holdings group for periods prior to the Distribution to the extent attributable to the real estate development business. We generally will be responsible for any of the taxes of the SG Holdings group other than taxes for which SG DevCorp is responsible. In addition, we will be responsible for our taxes arising as a result of the Separation and Distribution. Notwithstanding the foregoing, sales, use, transfer, real property transfer, intangible, recordation, registration, documentary, stamp or similar taxes imposed on the Distribution shall be borne fifty percent (50%) by us and fifty percent (50%) by SG DevCorp. We shall be entitled to any refund (and any interest thereon received from the applicable tax authority) of taxes for which we are responsible for under the tax matters agreement and SG DevCorp shall be entitled to any refund (and any interest thereon received from the applicable tax authority) of taxes for which SG DevCorp is responsible for under the tax matters agreement.

 

Each of SG Holdings and SG DevCorp will indemnify each other against any taxes allocated to such party under the tax matters agreement and related out-of-pocket costs and expenses.

 

Shared Services Agreement

 

In connection with the Separation, we entered into a shared services agreement with SG DevCorp which sets forth the terms on which we provides to SG DevCorp certain services or functions that the companies historically have shared. Shared services will include various administrative, accounting, communications/investor relations, human resources, operations/construction services, and strategic management and other support services.

 

In consideration for such services, SG DevCorp pays fees to us for the services provided, and those fees are generally in amounts intended to allow us to recover all of its direct and indirect costs incurred in providing those services. We charge SG DevCorp a fee for services performed by (i) our employees which is a percentage of each employee’s base salary based upon an allocation of their business time spent providing such services and (ii) third parties, the fees charged by such third parties. SG DevCorp also pay us for general and administrative expenses incurred by us attributable to both the operation of SG Holdings (other than the provision of the services performed by our employees) and the provision of the shared services, including but not limited to information technology, data subscription and corporate overhead expenses, the portion of such costs and expenses that are attributable to the provision of the shared services, as reasonably determined by us. SG DevCorp also reimburses us for direct out-of-pocket costs incurred by us for third party services provided to SG DevCorp.

 

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Other Related Party Transactions

 

Fabrication Agreement

 

On December 2, 2022, SG DevCorp entered into the Fabrication Agreement with SG Echo for the fabrication of approximately 800 multifamily market rate rental units, equal to approximately 800,000 square feet of new modular buildings to be located at the McLean site (the “McLean Project”). The Fabrication Agreement provided that SG Echo would be paid a fee equal to 15% of the cost of the McLean Project. The McLean Project will be fabricated in Phases of 100 to 150 units per phase, with the schedule of the phasing to be determined in SG DevCorp’s sole discretion. The terms of payment are as follows: (i) down payment of 30% upon release of project for fabrication; (ii) stage payment of 65% upon completion of fabrication, testing and inspection of each unit as it leaves the facility; and (iii) final payment of 5% upon completion of installation on site, including acceptance of punch list items, startup of equipment and City of Durant inspection. Notwithstanding the foregoing, SG DevCorp may withhold 10%, as retainage, from the payment otherwise due, to be reduced to 5% after field install is watertight and 2.5% after all punch list items have been complete. The Fabrication Agreement may be terminated for cause by either party upon 30-days written notice to the other party, subject to each party’s right to cure a default or breach, except for fraud or bad faith. In the event of termination, SG Echo will be entitled to be paid for all services rendered through the date of termination. In the event the termination by SG DevCorp is without cause, SG DevCorp will also pay any expenses incurred as a result of the termination (including without limitation supplier and vendor cancellation fees, restocking fees, subcontractor termination or cancellation fees, or other similar termination costs), plus a 15% markup as compensation for SG Echo’s anticipated profit on the value of services not performed by SG Echo. In connection with the entry into the Master Purchase Agreement, on December 18, 2023, SG DevCorp and SG Echo terminated that certain Fabrication Agreement, dated December 2, 2022, between the parties relating to the McLean mixed-use site.

 

Master Purchase Agreement

 

On December 17, 2023, SG DevCorp entered into a Master Purchase Agreement with SG Echo pursuant to which SG DevCorp may engage SG Echo from time to time to provide modular construction design, engineering, fabrication, delivery and other services (collectively, the “Work”) on such terms as the parties may mutually agree. The Master Purchase Agreement provides that if SG DevCorp should desire that SG Echo provide services in connection with any location, SG DevCorp will request from SG Echo a written proposal and that within 15 business days SG Echo will provide SG DevCorp with an itemized cost proposal for the services to be performed and a firm schedule for performing the services based upon the information contained in the request. If the proposal and schedule is satisfactory to SG DevCorp, the Master Purchase Agreement provides that the substance of such proposal will then be incorporated into a project order, including specific information regarding the project, the project site and services to be performed, to be executed by both parties.

 

 The Master Purchase Agreement provides that SG Echo will be paid a fee equal to 12% of the agreed cost of each project. The Master Purchase Agreement further provides that payment terms for all design work and the completion of the pre-fabricated container and module shall be made in accordance with the following schedule: (a) a deposit equal to 40% of the cost of the pre- fabricated container and module only shall be paid by SG DevCorp to SG Echo within 5 business days of the mutual execution of a project order; (b) a progress payment (not to exceed to 35% of the cost of the pre-fabricated container and module) shall be paid by SG DevCorp to SG Echo monthly in proportion to the percentage of Work completed, which payment shall be made within 10 business days of the SG DevCor’'s receipt of SG Echo’s invoice; (c) a progress payment equal to 15% of the cost of the pre-fabricated container and module shall be paid by SG DevCorp to SG Echo within 10 business days of the delivery of the pre-fabricated container and module to the specific project site; and (d) the final payment equal to 10% of the cost of the pre-fabricated container and module only shall be paid by SG DevCorp to SG Echo within 10 business days of the substantial completion of the Work. Substantial completion of the Work shall be as defined by the applicable project order. Notwithstanding the foregoing, SG DevCorp may withhold 10% of the invoiced amount, as retainage, which will be paid to SG Echo once the specific project is completed (including any punch list items). The Master Purchase Agreement may be terminated by either party if there is a material default by the other party and such default continues for a period of 20 days after receipt by the defaulting party of written notice thereof. If SG DevCorp terminates the Master Purchase Agreement or any project order as a result of a default by SG Echo, SG Echo will not be entitled to receive further payment until the Work is finished. If the unpaid balance of the amount set forth in the project order for the project is less than the cost of finishing the Work, SG Echo will pay the difference to SG DevCorp. In no event will SG Echo be entitled to receive any compensation if the cost to SG DevCorp of performing the balance of the Work is less than the unpaid balance. In addition, SG DevCorp may terminate the Master Purchase Agreement or any project order without cause. In the event the termination by SG DevCorp is without cause, SG Echo will be entitled to payment for all work and costs incurred prior to termination date plus the applicable fee owed to SG Echo thereon as more particularly described in the applicable project order.

 

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The initial project for which modular construction services are anticipated to be provided to SG DevCorp by SG Echo is the Magnolia Gardens residential project to be built on the McLean mixed-use site in Durant, Oklahoma, consisting of 800 residential units. In accordance with the Master Purchase Agreement, SG Echo will provide SG DevCorp with an itemized cost proposal for the services to be performed for the Magnolia Gardens residential project and a firm schedule for performing the services. If the proposal and schedule is satisfactory to SG DevCorp, the proposal will be then incorporated into a project order to be executed by both parties.

 

Related Party Review Procedures

 

Pursuant to our Audit Committee charter, our Audit Committee reviews on an on-going basis our policies and procedures for reviewing and approving or ratifying all “Related Party Transactions” (defined as transactions required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 of Regulation S-K), including the Company’s Related Person Transaction Policy, and recommend any changes to the Board. In accordance with our Related Person Transaction Policy and Nasdaq Rule 4350(h), the Audit Committee conducts appropriate review and oversight of all related person transactions for potential conflict of interest situations on an ongoing basis. Any transaction with a related person is subject to our written policy for transactions with related persons. Pursuant to such policy, our Audit Committee reviews in advance all related person transactions. The Audit Committee approves only those related person transactions that are determined to be in, or not inconsistent with, the best interests of the Company and its stockholders, taking into account all available facts and circumstances as the Audit Committee determines in good faith to be necessary. These facts and circumstances will typically include, but not be limited to: whether the transaction was undertaken in the ordinary course of business of the Company; the purpose and potential benefits of the transaction to the Company; the terms of the transaction and of comparable transactions that would be available to unrelated third parties or to employees generally; and the impact on a director’s independence in the event the related person is a director, an immediate family member of a director or an entity in which a director is a partner, stockholder or executive officer. In reviewing and approving such transactions, the Audit Committee obtains, or will direct management to obtain on its behalf, all information that the Audit Committee believes to be relevant and important to a review of the transaction prior to its approval. The Audit Committee may adopt any further policies and procedures relating to the approval of related person transactions that it deems necessary or advisable from time to time.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following briefly summarizes the material terms of our capital stock that are contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”) and our amended and restated bylaws (the “Bylaws”). These summaries do not describe every aspect of these securities and documents and are subject to all the provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws and are qualified in their entirety by reference to these documents, which you should read (along with the applicable provisions of Delaware law) for complete information on our capital stock. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws are included as exhibits to our registration statement on Form S-1, of which this prospectus forms a part. Since the terms of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) are more detailed than the general information provided below, you should read the actual provisions of the DGCL for complete information. 

 

General

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 75,000,000 shares of Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 5,405,010 shares of preferred stock, par value $1.00 per share.

 

As of January 30, 2024, 18,177,845 shares of our Common Stock are issued and outstanding, and no shares of our preferred stock are issued and outstanding.

 

Common Stock

 

Voting RightsEach holder of our Common Stock is entitled to one vote for each share of Common Stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, except as otherwise required by statute. Except as otherwise required by law, the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter will be the act of the stockholders. Except as otherwise required by law, the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws, directors are elected by a plurality of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. Cumulative voting for the election of directors is not provided for in our certificate of incorporation.

 

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of outstanding shares of our Common Stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.

 

Liquidation Rights. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our Common Stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and payment of accrued dividends and liquidation preferences on the preferred stock, if any.

 

Rights and PreferencesThe rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of our Common Stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

Preemptive or Similar Rights. Holders of Common Stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the Common Stock.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of up to an aggregate of 5,405,010 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and authorize their issuance. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our Common Stock.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Charter Documents and Some Provisions of Delaware Law

 

Certain provisions set forth in our Certificate of Incorporation, our Bylaws and in Delaware law, which are summarized below, may be deemed to have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, deter or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider to be in its best interests, including attempts that might result in a premium being paid over the market price for the shares held by stockholders.

 

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Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

Proposals of business and nominations. Our Bylaws generally regulate proposals of business and nominations for election of directors by stockholders. In general, Section 2.4 requires stockholders intending to submit proposals or nominations at a stockholders meeting to provide the Company with advance notice thereof, including information regarding the stockholder proposing the business or nomination as well as information regarding the proposed business or nominee. Section 2.4 provides a time period during which business or nominations must be provided to the Company that will create a predictable window for the submission of such notices, eliminating the risk that the Company finds a meeting will be contested after printing its proxy materials for an uncontested election and providing the Company with a reasonable opportunity to respond to nominations and proposals by stockholders.

 

Blank Check Preferred Stock. Our board of directors has the right to issue preferred stock in one or more series and to determine the designations, rights, preferences of such preferred stock without stockholder approval.

 

Board Vacancies. Our Bylaws generally provide that only the board of directors (and not the stockholders) may fill vacancies and newly created directorships.

 

Removal of Directors. Our Bylaws provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause.

 

Stockholder Actions. Our Bylaws provide that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting. Our Bylaws also provide that only our chairman of the board, chief executive officer, president (in the absence of a chief executive officer) or the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the directors may call a special meeting of stockholders.

 

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management.

 

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

 

We are incorporated in the State of Delaware. As a result, we are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the time that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

 

 

before such time, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
     
  upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (1) by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
     
  at or subsequent to such time, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder. 

 

76

 

 

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

 

 

 

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation or a direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation and the interested stockholder;
     
  any sale, lease, mortgage, pledge transfer, or other disposition of the assets of the corporation or direct or indirect majority-owned a subsidiary of the corporation to or with the interested stockholder, which assets have an aggregate value equal to 10% or more of the fair value of the assets on a consolidated basis or the aggregate market value of the outstanding stock of the corporation;
     
  subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation or a direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation of any stock of the corporation or subsidiary to the interested stockholder;
     
  any transaction involving the corporation or direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation or the subsidiary beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
     
  the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation or direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation.

 

In general, under Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” include an entity or person (other than the corporation any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation) who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation. A Delaware corporation may “opt out” of these provisions with an express provision in its certificate of incorporation. Since we have not opted out of Section 203, Section 203 may discourage or prevent mergers or other takeover or change of control attempts of us.

 

Listing of Common Stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market

 

Our Common Stock is currently listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol “SGBX.”

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our Common Stock is Equiniti Trust Company, LLC. 

 

77

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

The Selling Stockholders and any of their pledgees, assignees and successors-in-interest may, from time to time, sell any or all of its securities covered hereby on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any other stock exchange, market or trading facility on which the securities are traded or in private transactions. These sales may be at fixed or negotiated prices. The Selling Stockholders may use any one or more of the following methods when selling securities:

 

  ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;
     
  block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the securities as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;
     
  purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;
     
  an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;
     
  privately negotiated transactions;
     
  settlement of short sales;
     
  in transactions through broker-dealers that agree with the Selling Stockholders to sell a specified number of such securities at a stipulated price per security;
     
  through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions, whether through an options exchange or otherwise;
     
  a combination of any such methods of sale; or
     
  any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.

 

78

 

 

The Selling Stockholders may also sell securities under Rule 144 or any other exemption from registration under the Securities Act, if available, rather than under this prospectus.

 

Broker-dealers engaged by the Selling Stockholders may arrange for other brokers-dealers to participate in sales. Broker-dealers may receive commissions or discounts from the Selling Stockholders (or, if any broker-dealer acts as agent for the purchaser of securities, from the purchaser) in amounts to be negotiated, but, except as set forth in a supplement to this prospectus, in the case of an agency transaction not in excess of a customary brokerage commission in compliance with FINRA Rule 2440; and in the case of a principal transaction, a markup or markdown in compliance with FINRA IM-2440.

 

In connection with the sale of the securities or interests therein, the Selling Stockholders may enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions, which may in turn engage in short sales of the securities in the course of hedging the positions they assume. The Selling Stockholders may also sell securities short and deliver these securities to close out their short positions, or loan or pledge the securities to broker-dealers that in turn may sell these securities. The Selling Stockholders may also enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers or other financial institutions or create one or more derivative securities which require the delivery to such broker-dealer or other financial institution of securities offered by this prospectus, which securities such broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction).

 

The Selling Stockholders and any broker-dealers or agents that are involved in selling the securities are “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act in connection with such sales. In such event, any commissions received by such broker-dealers or agents and any profit on the resale of the securities purchased by them may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts under the Securities Act. The Selling Stockholders have informed us that they do not have any written or oral agreement or understanding, directly or indirectly, with any person to distribute the securities.

 

We are required to pay certain fees and expenses incurred by us incident to the registration of the securities. We have agreed to indemnify the Selling Stockholders against certain losses, claims, damages and liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Pursuant to the registration rights agreement that we entered into with respect to the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, we agreed to keep this prospectus effective until the Selling Stockholders do not own any Warrants Shares, Debenture Shares or Commitment Shares.. In addition, in certain states, the resale securities covered hereby may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and is complied with.

 

Pursuant to applicable rules and regulations under the Exchange Act, any person engaged in the distribution of the resale securities may not simultaneously engage in market making activities with respect to the Common Stock for the applicable restricted period, as defined in Regulation M, prior to the commencement of the distribution. In addition, the Selling Stockholders will be subject to applicable provisions of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, including Regulation M, which may limit the timing of purchases and sales of the Common Stock by the Selling Stockholders or any other person. We will make copies of this prospectus available to the Selling Stockholders and have informed them of the need to deliver a copy of this prospectus to each purchaser at or prior to the time of the sale (including by compliance with Rule 172 under the Securities Act).

 

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EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and for the years then ended, included in this prospectus and in the registration statement have been so included in reliance on the report of Whitley Penn LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, included herein, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

CHANGES IN INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

The Board of Directors of the Company, through its Audit Committee (the “Audit Committee”), conducted a competitive process to determine the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm commencing with the audit of the Company’s books and financial records for the year ending December 31, 2023. The Audit Committee invited several independent registered public accounting firms to participate in this process.

 

Following review of proposals from the independent registered public accounting firms that participated in the process, on December 13, 2023, upon recommendation from the Audit Committee, the Board of Directors of the Company approved the engagement of M&K CPAS PLLC (“M&K”) as the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm for the Company’s fiscal year ending December 31, 2023. On December 15, 2023, the Company (i) entered into an engagement letter with M&K and engaged M&K as the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm effective immediately and (ii) dismissed Whitley Penn LLP (“Whitley Penn”).

 

Whitley Penn’s reports on the Company’s consolidated financial statements as of and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 did not contain any adverse opinion or disclaimer of opinion, nor were they qualified or modified as to uncertainty, audit scope, or accounting principles, other than report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 contained a “going concern” paragraph.

 

During the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, and the subsequent interim periods through December 15, 2023, there were: (i) no disagreements within the meaning of Item 304(a)(1)(iv) of Regulation S-K and the related instructions between the Company and Whitley Penn on any matters of accounting principles or practices, financial statement disclosure, or auditing scope or procedure which, if not resolved to Whitley Penn’s satisfaction, would have caused Whiley Penn to make reference thereto in its reports; and (ii) no reportable events within the meaning of Item 304(a)(1)(v) of Regulation S-K.

 

The Company requested Whitley Penn to furnish a letter addressed to the Securities and Exchange Commission stating whether or not it agrees with the above statements. A copy of Whitley Penn’s letter, dated December 21, 2023, is included as Exhibit 16.1 to this registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

During the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, and the subsequent interim periods through December 15, 2023, neither the Company nor anyone on its behalf has consulted with M&K regarding: (i) the application of accounting principles to a specific transaction, either completed or proposed, or the type of audit opinion that might be rendered on the Company’s financial statements, and neither a written report nor oral advice was provided to the Company that M&K concluded was an important factor considered by the Company in reaching a decision as to any accounting, auditing, or financial reporting issue; (ii) any matter that was the subject of a disagreement within the meaning of Item 304(a)(1)(iv) of Regulation S-K and the related instructions; or (iii) any reportable event within the meaning of Item 304(a)(1)(v) of Regulation S-K.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Blank Rome LLP, New York, New York.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-1 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered hereby. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement or the exhibits and schedules filed with the registration statement. For further information about us and the securities offered hereby, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits filed with the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and each such statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the full text of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. The SEC also maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about registrants, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

 

We are required to file periodic reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. These reports, proxy statements, and other information will be available on the website of the SEC referred to above.

 

We also maintain a website at www.safeandgreenholdings.com, through which you may access these materials free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Information contained on or accessed through our website is not a part of this prospectus and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

 

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Safe & Green Holdings Corp.

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Schedule

 

    Page
Audited Consolidated Financial Statements years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021:    
     
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID: 726)   F-2
Consolidated Balance Sheets   F-5
Consolidated Statements of Operations   F-6
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity   F-7
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows   F-8

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

  F-9
     
Nine month periods ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 (unaudited)   
     
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of September 30, 2023 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2022   F-41
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three and Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 (Unaudited)   F-42
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the Three and Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 (Unaudited)   F-43
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 (Unaudited)   F-45
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements   F-46

 

F-1

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders

Safe & Green Holdings Corp. and Subsidiaries

 

Opinion on the Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Safe & Green Holdings Corp. and subsidiaries (the “Company”), as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for the years then ended and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company, as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for the years then ended in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. 

 

Going Concern

 

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the entity will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the entity has suffered recurring losses from operations and negative cash flow from operations, and has a net working capital deficiency that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits.  We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB. 

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB.  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks.  Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

Critical Audit Matters

 

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

 

Revenue Recognition – Determination of Estimated Costs to Complete for Contracts Recognized Over Time

 

Description of the Matter

 

The Company’s construction and engineering contracts generally recognize revenue over time as there is a continuous transfer of control to the customer. Approximately 52% of the Company’s revenue during the year ended December 31, 2022 was for construction and engineering contracts whereby revenue was recorded over time.

 

F-2

 

 

The Company uses the amount of cost incurred under the contract as a measure of progress towards completion, and revenue recognized is measured principally by the costs incurred and accrued to date for each contract as a percentage of the estimated total cost for each contract at completion. Contract costs include all direct material, labor, and indirect costs related to contract performance. Changes in job performance, job conditions, estimated contract costs and profitability and final contract settlements may result in revisions to costs and income, and the effects of these revisions are recognized prospectively in the period in which the revisions are determined. This measurement and comparison process requires updates to the estimate of total costs to complete the contract, and these updates include subjective assessments and judgments.

 

We identified the Company’s estimation of the costs to complete each contract as a critical audit matter due to the high degree of auditor judgment and the increased extent of effort that was required when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s estimates and assumptions related to the estimate of costs to complete contracts recognized over time.

 

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit

 

Our audit procedures related to forecasts of estimated costs to complete contracts recognized over time included the following, among others:

 

We selected a sample of contracts and obtained and inspected the executed contract and change orders to validate existence and understand the scope of each contract.
   
We performed a site visit near the end of the reporting period. We observed and inspected the projects in process and inquired of project managers to gain an understanding of the progress on significant projects in process.
   
We selected a sample of project costs incurred to ensure accuracy of costs incurred during the year. We also verified that project costs, both direct and indirect, were applied to the correct project.
   
We evaluated and tested management’s process to estimate future costs to complete contracts recognized over time. This evaluation included ensuring the consistency of management’s process and policies regarding change orders and timely costs revisions; performing a retrospective review of prior estimates to actual results; and analyzing actual costs incurred subsequent to December 31, 2022 as compared to the estimated future costs to complete as of December 31, 2022.

 

Goodwill Impairment Analysis

 

Description of the Matter 

 

The Company’s evaluation of goodwill for impairment involves the comparison of the estimated fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. The annual impairment test of goodwill at a reporting unit level is performed annually during the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate the fair value of a reporting unit may be below its respective carrying value. The Company uses a discounted cash flow model (income approach) and several market approaches to estimate the fair value of the reporting unit. The discounted cash flow model requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions related to discount rates and forecasts of future revenues and reporting unit profit margins. The market approach requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions related to identifying comparable public companies and determining an appropriate revenue multiple to calculate fair value. Changes in these assumptions could have a significant impact on the fair value and the amount of any goodwill impairment charge. 

 

The Company performed its annual impairment test of goodwill during the fourth quarter. No impairment was recorded, because the estimated fair values of each of the Company’s reporting units exceeded their carrying values. Given that forecasted revenues and reporting unit profit margins are sensitive to changes in demand and efficiency of operations, auditing management’s assumptions involved subjective judgment. As a result, we identified the Company’s evaluations of goodwill impairment as a critical audit matter due to the high degree of auditor judgment and the increased extent of effort that was required when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s estimates and assumptions related to the forecasts of revenue and profit margins, the selection of discount rates, and the selection of appropriate revenue multiples, including the need to involve our fair value specialists.

 

F-3

 

 

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit

 

Our audit procedures related to forecasts of future revenues and operating unit profit margins (“forecasts”), the selection of discount rates, and the determination of appropriate revenue multiples included the following, among others:

 

We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s forecasts by evaluating the reasonableness of management’s future operating plans, which include expanding production capacity and gaining operating efficiencies.
   
We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s forecasts by performing a sensitivity analysis on the forecasts used in the discounted cash flow model to determine the impact to fair value as various assumptions are changed.
   
We evaluated the reasonableness of the revenue multiples used in the market approach to determine the impact to fair value as various assumptions are changed.
   
With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of management’s fair value estimate by:
   
Testing the Company’s process to develop the estimates, which included evaluating the methods, data, and significant assumptions used in developing the estimate.
   
Testing the source information underlying the determination of the discount rate and the mathematical accuracy of the calculation.

 

/s/ Whitley Penn LLP

 

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2016.

 

Dallas, Texas

March 30, 2023

 

F-4

 

 

SAFE & GREEN HOLDINGS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

December 31,  2022   2021 
         
Assets        
Current assets:        
Cash and cash equivalents  $582,776   $13,024,381 
Accounts receivable, net   1,280,456    2,917,646 
Contract assets   36,384    41,916 
Held for sale assets   4,396,826    
 
Inventories   465,560    1,273,825 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets   744,211    656,279 
Total current assets   7,506,213    17,914,047 
           
Property, plant and equipment, net   5,608,903    6,839,943 
Project development costs and other non-current assets   483,546    923,172 
Goodwill   1,309,330    1,309,330 
Right-of-use asset, net   4,421,002    1,210,053 
Long-term notes receivable   857,534    720,137 
Intangible assets, net   1,997,833    2,095,232 
Deferred contract costs, net   71,374    112,159 
Investment in non-marketable securities   700,000    200,000 
Investment in and advances to equity affiliates   3,599,945    3,599,945 
Total Assets  $26,555,680   $34,924,018 
           
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity          
Current liabilities:          
Accounts payable and accrued expenses  $4,009,522   $7,568,851 
Contract liabilities   437,271    1,437,579 
Lease liability, current maturities   1,225,394    337,469 
Due to affiliates   
    264,451 
Assumed liability   5,795    5,795 
Short term note payable, net   2,648,300    1,971,960 
Total current liabilities   8,326,282    11,586,105 
           
Long-term note payable   750,000    750,000 
Lease liability, net of current maturities   3,039,836    872,124 
Total liabilities   12,116,118    13,208,229 
           
Stockholders’ equity:          
Preferred stock, $0.00 par value, 5,405,010 shares authorized; none issued or outstanding.   
    
 
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 25,000,000 shares authorized; 12,613,978 issued and 12,590,863 outstanding as of December 31, 2022 and 11,986,873 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021.   126,140    119,869 
Additional paid-in capital   56,173,977    53,341,405 
Treasury stock, at cost – 23,115 shares   (49,680)   
 
Accumulated deficit   (41,428,268)   (33,109,220)
Total Safe & Green Holdings Corp. stockholders’ equity   14,822,169    20,352,054 
Non-controlling interests   (382,607)   1,363,735 
Total Stockholders’ equity   14,439,562    21,715,789 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity  $26,555,680   $34,924,018 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

F-5

 

 

SAFE & GREEN HOLDINGS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations

 

   For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
   2022   2021 
         
Revenue:        
Construction services  $12,663,896   $6,537,941 
Engineering services   88,323    255,749 
Medical revenue   11,641,727    31,548,012 
Total   24,393,946    38,341,702 
           
Cost of revenue:          
Construction services   12,729,895    13,251,470 
Engineering services   58,894    154,126 
Medical revenue   8,351,005    22,607,058 
Total   21,139,794    36,012,654 
           
Gross profit   3,254,152    2,329,048 
           
Operating expenses:          
Payroll and related expenses   5,538,352    4,186,642 
General and administrative expenses   4,464,836    3,788,024 
Marketing and business development expense   480,934    288,438 
Pre-project expenses   
    48,794 
Total   10,484,122    8,311,898 
           
Operating loss   (7,229,970)   (5,982,850)
           
Other income (expense):          
Interest expense   (336,239)   (1,254)
Interest income   73,821    57,266 
Other income (expense)   428,411    62,602 
Loss on asset disposal   (25,265)   (44,081)
Loss from equity affiliates   
    (55)
Total   140,728    74,478 
           
Loss before income taxes   (7,089,242)   (5,908,372)
Income tax expense   
    
 
           
Net loss   (7,089,242)   (5,908,372)
           
Add: net profit attributable to noncontrolling interests   1,229,806    4,924,302 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders of Safe & Green Holdings Corp.  $(8,319,048)  $(10,832,674)
           
Net loss per share attributable to Safe & Green Holdings Corp. - basic and diluted:          
Basic and diluted
  $(0.62)  $(1.16)
           
Weighted average shares outstanding:          
Basic and diluted
   13,332,106    9,339,199 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

F-6

 

 

SAFE & GREEN HOLDINGS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity

 

   $0.01 Par Value
Common Stock
   Preferred   Additional
Paid-in
   Treasury   Accumulated   Safe & Green Stockholders’   Noncontrolling   Total
Stockholders’
 
   Shares   Amount   Stock   Capital   Stock   Deficit   Equity   Interests   Equity 
Balance at January 1, 2021   8,596,189   $85,962   $
   $40,443,840   $
   $(22,276,546)  $18,253,256   $184,567   $18,437,823 
Stock-based compensation       
    
    1,736,531    
    
    1,736,531    
    1,736,531 
Conversion of warrants to common stock   226,300    2,263    
    704,925    
    
    707,188    
    707,188 
Issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs   3,164,384    31,644    
    10,456,109    
    
    10,487,753    
    10,487,753